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Gene Review

Sord  -  sorbitol dehydrogenase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase, Sdh1, Sorbitol dehydrogenase
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Disease relevance of Sord


Psychiatry related information on Sord


High impact information on Sord


Chemical compound and disease context of Sord


Biological context of Sord


Anatomical context of Sord


Associations of Sord with chemical compounds

  • SDH overexpression was found to significantly stimulate ROS generation in high glucose-exposed pericytes and subsequently potentiate the cytopathic effects of glucose [1].
  • Fidarestat, a newly developed AR inhibitor, and N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, completely prevented these deleterious effects of SDH overexpression on pericytes [1].
  • Nonradioactive in situ hybridization studies on sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, normally concentrating kidneys showed strong expression of BGT, SMIT, and AR mRNAs in interstitial and collecting duct cells of the papilla, whereas expression of SDH mRNA was much weaker in both cell types [19].
  • Swelling and liquefaction of lens fibers were observed in the subcapsular and supranuclear region of 60 week old OLETF rats, as well as decreased lenticular sorbitol, and markedly increased SDH activity compared with rats at 40 weeks [20].
  • This variance occurs at position 957-960, where threonine is coded for instead of aspartic acid; in the rat testis SDH cDNA, we find the sequence is ACG instead of GAC, as was reported for the rat liver SDH cDNA [16].

Physical interactions of Sord


Other interactions of Sord


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sord

  • Northern-blot hybridization analysis showed that SDH mRNA is a doublet, one band of 4 kb and the other of 2.3-2.4 kb, in both the rat liver and the rat lens, further confirming that the isolated SDH cDNA constituted a full-length cDNA [16].
  • The enzymatic activities, expression, and localization of AR and SDH were studied in reproductive tracts and spermatozoa of male rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and enzyme assays [17].
  • To identify the polyol pathway step most relevant to complications, particularly neuropathy, we compared the biochemical effects of a sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor, WAY-135706, (250 and an ARI, WAY-121509, (10 on a variety of tissues, and their effects on nerve perfusion and conduction velocity [4].
  • Second, in rats fed a low-protein diet for 3 wk, aldose reductase mRNA increased two-fold, whereas sorbitol dehydrogenase and taurine cotransporter mRNA were unchanged [5].
  • Creatine kinase release during reperfusion, a marker of myocardial ischemic injury, was markedly attenuated in SDH-inhibited hearts [26].


  1. Sorbitol dehydrogenase overexpression potentiates glucose toxicity to cultured retinal pericytes. Amano, S., Yamagishi, S., Kato, N., Inagaki, Y., Okamoto, T., Makino, M., Taniko, K., Hirooka, H., Jomori, T., Takeuchi, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of gene expression of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in rat Schwann cells by competitive RT-PCR method using non-homologous DNA standards. Maekawa, K., Tanimoto, T., Okada, S., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, T., Yabe-Nishimura, C. Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Sorbitol dehydrogenase deficiency in several pig tissues: potential implications for studies of experimental diabetes. Vaca, G., Alonso, R., Zúñiga, P., González-Quiroga, G., Chávez, M.A., Medina, C., Wunsch, C., Cantú, J.M. Diabetologia (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of the effects of inhibitors of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase on neurovascular function, nerve conduction and tissue polyol pathway metabolites in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cameron, N.E., Cotter, M.A., Basso, M., Hohman, T.C. Diabetologia (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and taurine cotransporter mRNA in rat medulla. Martial, S., Price, S.R., Sands, J.M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Stimulated hepatic tissue repair underlies heteroprotection by thioacetamide against acetaminophen-induced lethality. Chanda, S., Mangipudy, R.S., Warbritton, A., Bucci, T.J., Mehendale, H.M. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Galactosamine hepatitis, endotoxemia, and lactulose. van Vugt, H., van Gool, J., Thomas, L.L. Hepatology (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Requirement of aldose reductase for the hyperglycemic activation of protein kinase C and formation of diacylglycerol in vascular smooth muscle cells. Ramana, K.V., Friedrich, B., Tammali, R., West, M.B., Bhatnagar, A., Srivastava, S.K. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of sorbitol dehydrogenase. Effects on vascular and neural dysfunction in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Tilton, R.G., Chang, K., Nyengaard, J.R., Van den Enden, M., Ido, Y., Williamson, J.R. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Tissue repair response as a function of dose during trichloroethylene hepatotoxicity. Soni, M.G., Mangipudy, R.S., Mumtaz, M.M., Mehendale, H.M. Toxicol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Antihepatotoxic activity of icariin, a major constituent of Epimedium koreanum. Lee, M.K., Choi, Y.J., Sung, S.H., Shin, D.I., Kim, J.W., Kim, Y.C. Planta Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Remedial effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid against adriamycin induced testicular lipid peroxidation. Prahalathan, C., Selvakumar, E., Varalakshmi, P. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of carbon tetrachloride--alcohol-induced liver fibrosis on microsomal mixed-function oxidases and the cytosolic glutathione-conjugating system in rat liver. Younes, M., Reichl, W., Siegers, C.P. Xenobiotica (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Sorbitol dehydrogenase: cDNA coding for the rat enzyme. Variations within the alcohol dehydrogenase family independent of quaternary structure and metal content. Karlsson, C., Jörnvall, H., Höög, J.O. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Osmoregulation of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in cultivated interstitial cells of rat renal inner medulla. Steffgen, J., Kampfer, K., Grupp, C., Langenberg, C., Müller, G.A., Grunewald, R.W. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Sorbitol dehydrogenase. Full-length cDNA sequencing reveals a mRNA coding for a protein containing an additional 42 amino acids at the N-terminal end. Wen, Y., Bekhor, I. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Localization and physiological implication of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in reproductive tracts and spermatozoa of male rats. Kobayashi, T., Kaneko, T., Iuchi, Y., Matsuki, S., Takahashi, M., Sasagawa, I., Nakada, T., Fujii, J. J. Androl. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Colocalization of polyol-metabolizing enzymes and immunological detection of fructated proteins in the female reproductive system of the rat. Kaneko, T., Iuchi, Y., Takahashi, M., Fujii, J. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypertonicity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in papillary interstitial cells. Burger-Kentischer, A., Müller, E., März, J., Fraek, M.L., Thurau, K., Beck, F.X. Kidney Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Biochemical and morphological changes during development of sugar cataract in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat. Kubo, E., Maekawa, K., Tanimoto, T., Fujisawa, S., Akagi, Y. Exp. Eye Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Acute testicular toxicity of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the rat: evaluation of biochemical effect markers and hormonal responses. Reader, S.C., Shingles, C., Stonard, M.D. Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase distribution in rat kidney. Corder, C.N., Collins, J.G., Brannan, T.S., Sharma, J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Gene expression of enzymes comprising the polyol pathway in various rat tissues determined by the competitive RT-PCR method. Maekawa, K., Tanimoto, T., Okada, S. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Restoration of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat sciatic nerve on treatment with Na3VO4 and Trigonella--a promising antidiabetic agent. Preet, A., Gupta, B.L., Siddiqui, M.R., Yadava, P.K., Baquer, N.Z. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Activity and androgenic control of enzymes associated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid oxidation and mitochondrial shuttles in the epididymis and epididymal spermatozoa of the rat. Brooks, D.E. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Sorbitol dehydrogenase: a novel target for adjunctive protection of ischemic myocardium. Hwang, Y.C., Bakr, S., Ellery, C.A., Oates, P.J., Ramasamy, R. FASEB J. (2003) [Pubmed]
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