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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synthesis, activation, and cytotoxicity of aldophosphamide analogues.

A series of perhydrooxazine analogues of aldophosphamide has been prepared, and their 31P NMR kinetics and in vitro cytotoxicity have been evaluated. These compounds were developed on the basis of the idea that ring opening and tautomerization to an enamine intermediate might provide a mechanistic alternative to the beta-elimination reaction for release of phosphoramide mustard. The 4,4,6-trimethyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine moiety was selected on the basis of its rapid rate of iminium ion generation and relatively slow rate of hydrolysis. These analogues underwent phosphorodiamidate release by three distinct mechanisms: hydrolysis to aldophosphamide and subsequent beta-elimination; cyclization to produce the 4-hydroxycyclophosphamides, which release phosphorodiamidate by ring opening and elimination; and tautomerization to the enamine with rapid expulsion of phosphorodiamidate. Kinetic studies demonstrated that hydrolysis to the aldehyde contributed minimally to the overall activation process and that the enamine pathway represented the major route of activation. For those analogues that could undergo cyclization, this pathway competed effectively with enamine release, and these analogues were essentially equivalent to their 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide counterparts in cytotoxicity. A series of tetra-N-substituted phosphorodiamidates that cannot undergo cyclization was prepared to explore the effects of cyclization on the cytotoxicity of these analogues. The tetrakis(chloroethyl)phosphorodiamidates were highly potent in vitro against both cyclophosphamide-sensitive and -resistant L1210 and P388 cell lines, and one of these analogues had significant antitumor activity against L1210 leukemia in vivo. These results demonstrate that the enamine mechanism provides a viable pathway for delivery of phosphorodiamidates and that this approach can be used to deliver phosphorodiamidates that are non-cross-resistant in cyclophosphamide-resistant cell lines.[1]


  1. Synthesis, activation, and cytotoxicity of aldophosphamide analogues. Borch, R.F., Valente, R.R. J. Med. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
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