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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Serum vitamin A, retinyl esters and vitamin E in nephrotic syndrome.

Serum vitamin A, retinyl esters and vitamin E were increased in a group of 33 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome without reduction of mean glomerular filtration rate. Despite hypoproteinaemia and reduced values of serum proteins with a different molecular weight, increased values of vitamin A protein carriers were found. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, prebeta und beta lipoproteins were increased, HDL cholesterol was within the reference range. Direct relationships were found between serum retinyl esters and vitamin A, and between serum retinyl esters and prealbumin. Indirect relationships were detected between serum total cholesterol and total proteins, serum total cholesterol and albumin, and serum vitamin E and albumin. The increased values of vitamin A, retinyl esters as well as its protein carriers and of vitamin E were probably a manifestation of enhanced protein and lipid synthesis in the liver as a result of albumin depletion. These results show true A and E hypervitaminosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome.[1]


  1. Serum vitamin A, retinyl esters and vitamin E in nephrotic syndrome. Mydlík, M., Derzsiová, K., Brátová, M., Havris, S. International urology and nephrology. (1991) [Pubmed]
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