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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Contribution of NF-kappa B and Sp1 binding motifs to the replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: distinct patterns of viral growth are determined by T-cell types.

Starting with a replication-incompetent molecular clone of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, lacking all the NF-kappa B and Sp1 binding sites present in the native long terminal repeat (LTR), proviruses containing reconstructed LTRs with individual or combinations of NF-kappa B and Sp1 elements were generated and evaluated for their capacity to produce virus progeny following transfection-cocultivation. Virus stocks obtained from these experiments exhibited a continuum of replicative capacities in different human T-cell types depending on which element(s) was present in the LTR. For example, in experiments involving proviral clones with LTRs containing one or two NF-kappa B elements (and no Sp1 binding sites), a hierarchy of cellular permissivity to virus replication (peripheral blood lymphocytes = MT4 greater than H9 greater than CEM greater than Jurkat) was observed. Of note was the associated emergence of second-site LTR revertants which involved an alteration of the TATA box. These results suggest that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 LTR possesses functional redundancy which ensures virus replication in different T-cell types and is capable of changing depending on the particular combination of transcriptional factors present.[1]


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