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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes in hepatorenal syndrome.

The cysteinyl leukotrienes C4 and D4 are potent renal vasoconstrictors which may modulate glomerular function in vivo, and may therefore be important in the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. Urinary leukotriene E4, the major metabolite of leukotrienes C4 and D4, was elevated in patients with hepatorenal syndrome (17.8 ng/h) when compared with normal controls (5.1 ng/h) or subjects with renal failure alone (1.9 ng/h). Urinary leukotriene E4 was also elevated in subjects with decompensated liver disease (cirrhosis with ascites 28.6 ng/h, severe hepatocellular dysfunction 57.5 ng/h), but normal in compensated liver disease (6.7 ng/h). In the early stages of hepatorenal syndrome, leukotriene E4 excretion rate was up to 100-fold higher (560 ng/h) than in normals, and fell in parallel with creatinine clearance, indicative of the glomerular filtration rate-dependent renal excretion. Following correction for creatinine clearance, leukotriene E4, excretion was considerably higher in hepatorenal syndrome (54.1 pg/ml creatinine clearance) compared with normals (1.0 pg/ml creatinine clearance), chronic renal failure (3.2 pg/ml creatinine clearance), decompensated liver disease (ascites 7.7 pg/ml creatinine clearance, and severe hepatocellular dysfunction 11.0 pg/ml creatinine clearance), and compensated liver disease (1.9 pg/ml creatinine clearance). To interpret the significance of these findings, we determined renal clearance and endogenous metabolism of the cysteinyl leukotrienes by infusion of [3H]leukotriene C4 into a single subject with hepato-renal syndrome and two control subjects. Renal clearance of leukotriene E4, was reduced in hepatorenal syndrome (2.4 ml/min) compared with controls (greater than 17 ml/min) which together with the increased excretion rate of leukotriene E4 demonstrates that there is increased cysteinyl leukotriene production in hepatorenal syndrome. This may be one of the factors involved in its pathogenesis.[1]


  1. Increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes in hepatorenal syndrome. Moore, K.P., Taylor, G.W., Maltby, N.H., Siegers, D., Fuller, R.W., Dollery, C.T., Williams, R. J. Hepatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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