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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Filtration


Psychiatry related information on Filtration

  • The extent to which hyperemia may contribute to patient noncompliance and the effect of administration of the prostaglandin derivatives on outcome of filtration surgery remain to be determined [6].
  • During the so-called latency period, which is clinically non-detectable, the predominant functional abnormalities (increase in GFR with sub-clinical glomerular proteinuria) can be corrected by strict control although there is no evidence for the regression of the associated anatomical changes such as the enlarged filtration area [7].
  • A reactant ratio, i.e., SX/Pb(II) = 6 mol/mol, a reaction time of 15 min., the addition of 15 mg/L of a cationic polyelectrolyte and a final filtration gave residual lead concentrations in the liquid phase less than 0.2 mg/L, well below the maximum limit established by the EU Directive [8].

High impact information on Filtration

  • Filtration through a BioGel P-60 gel column established that 77 percent of the IGF-II was present as a larger molecule, demonstrating incomplete processing of the pro-IGF-II peptides [9].
  • Renal filtration and catabolism of complement protein D [10].
  • We evaluated glomerular filtration in 17 recipients of heart transplants who were treated for 12 months or longer with cyclosporine (cyclosporin A) [11].
  • Loss of biologic and radioimmunologic activity of cholecystokinin during sterilization by nitrocellulose filtration [12].
  • But these haemoglobins cannot be used as a blood substitute because (1) the oxygen affinity in the absence of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate is too high to allow unloading of enough oxygen in the tissues, and (2) they dissociate into alpha beta dimers that are cleared rapidly by renal filtration, which can result in long-term kidney damage [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Filtration

  • To determine whether the increased filtration of serum proteins after glomerular injury is the consequence of altered electrostatic properties of the glomerular capillary wall, we measured fractional clearances of the anionic polymer, dextran sulfate, in nine Munich-Wistar rats in the early autologous phase of nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) [14].
  • Two of the six patients who underwent haemoperfusion without PGI2 had hypotension, which in one was associated with a striking rise in Swank screen filtration pressure necessitating discontinuation of haemoperfusion after an hour [15].
  • Recovery from theophylline toxicity by continuous hemodialysis with filtration [16].
  • METHODS: With the equation AUC = dose/(glomerular filtration rate [GFR]+25), carboplatin AUC (course 1) was calculated for 1,028 patients (450 previously untreated) who received single-agent carboplatin (40 to 1,000 mg/m2) for advanced ovarian cancer [17].
  • RESULTS: Patients with gout showed lower uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, excretion of uric acid per volume of glomerular filtration, and urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio than controls at baseline, when patients showed hyperuricemia [18].

Biological context of Filtration


Anatomical context of Filtration

  • Significantly, a marked (90%) reduction in the anti-Mlsa,d response also occurred with T cell filtration through 3-wk xid+ mice, i.e., mice that elicit only minimal primary MLR; filtration through 3-wk xid- normal female mice led to near-complete (99%) negative selection [24].
  • Single nephron filtration rate of albumin (SNGFRAlb) was measured in remnant nephrons of Munich-Wistar rats 4-6 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (NPX) [25].
  • These results indicate that (1) unlike angiotensin II, AVP maintains glomerular perfusion and filtration in acute extracellular fluid volume depletion by a more selective constriction of the extrarenal vasculature [26].
  • The incorporation of cysteine-rich alpha3(IV), alpha4(IV), and alpha5(IV) chains into specialized basement membranes like the GBM may have normally evolved to protectively enhance their resistance to proteolytic degradation at the site of glomerular filtration [27].
  • Uptake of inorganic sulfate into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated by a calcium precipitation method from rat small intestine was investigated using a rapid filtration technique and 35Sulfur acid as tracer [28].

Associations of Filtration with chemical compounds

  • In vivo studies in mice showed that 90% of Tac was catabolized by the kidney with a t1/2 of 1 h and a filtration fraction of 0.11 relative to creatinine [29].
  • These data show that human D is catabolized by the kidney via glomerular filtration and reabsorption by the proximal nephron [30].
  • The activity of the D-glucose transport system in large and small cells was estimated by monitoring initial rates and small cells was estimated by monitoring initial rates of 3-O-[3H]methylglucose uptake by a rapid filtration method [31].
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition ameliorates glomerular filtration of macromolecules and water and lessens glomerular injury in the rat [32].
  • However, increasing membrane cholesterol caused a progressive decrease in red cell deformability, as measured by filtration [33].

Gene context of Filtration

  • We postulate that podocin serves in the structural organization of the slit diaphragm and the regulation of its filtration function [34].
  • Absence of Oct2 in itself had little effect on the pharmacokinetics of tetraethylammonium (TEA), but in Oct1/2(-/-) mice, renal secretion of this compound was completely abolished, leaving only glomerular filtration as a TEA clearance mechanism [35].
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is predominantly cleared from the circulation by glomerular filtration and degradation in the renal proximal tubules [36].
  • Together with its gene product, nephrin, NPHS1 is providing new understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of glomerular filtration [37].
  • CMS/CD2AP is a cytoplasmic protein critical for the integrity of the kidney glomerular filtration and the T cell function [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Filtration

  • Absolute reabsorption by the proximal tubule was calculated from fractional reabsorption and single nephron filtration rates as determined by micropuncture [39].
  • Denervation prevented the change in the single nephron filtration rate during acute hypercapnia, but absolute and fractional proximal tCO2 reabsorption remained elevated in comparison to denervated controls [40].
  • Normalization of the markedly elevated glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) in these glomeruli was accomplished by acute intravenous infusion of verapamil, which decreased SNGFRAlb by 9-83% without affecting the single nephron filtration rate of water (SNGFRH2O) [25].
  • Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen [41].
  • The binding data showed a relatively strong interaction of MAP-2 with the beta (422-434) peptide and a weaker interaction of both MAPs components with alpha (430-441) tubulin peptide as analyzed by Airfuge ultracentrifugation and zone filtration chromatography [42].


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  12. Loss of biologic and radioimmunologic activity of cholecystokinin during sterilization by nitrocellulose filtration. Lonovics, J., Suddith, R.L., Guzman, S., Rayford, P.L., Thompson, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. A human recombinant haemoglobin designed for use as a blood substitute. Looker, D., Abbott-Brown, D., Cozart, P., Durfee, S., Hoffman, S., Mathews, A.J., Miller-Roehrich, J., Shoemaker, S., Trimble, S., Fermi, G. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
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  15. Prostacyclin to prevent platelet activation during charcoal haemoperfusion in fulminant hepatic failure. Gimson, A.E., Langley, P.G., Hughes, R.D., Canalese, J., Mellon, P.J., Williams, R., Woods, H.F., Weston, M.J. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Recovery from theophylline toxicity by continuous hemodialysis with filtration. Okada, S., Teramoto, S., Matsuoka, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Relationships between carboplatin exposure and tumor response and toxicity in patients with ovarian cancer. Jodrell, D.I., Egorin, M.J., Canetta, R.M., Langenberg, P., Goldbloom, E.P., Burroughs, J.N., Goodlow, J.L., Tan, S., Wiltshaw, E. J. Clin. Oncol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  20. A micropuncture study of renal salt and water retention in chronic bile duct obstruction. Bank, N., Aynedjian, H.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Reversible sodium pump defect and swelling in the diabetic rat erythrocyte: effects on filterability and implications for microangiopathy. Kowluru, R., Bitensky, M.W., Kowluru, A., Dembo, M., Keaton, P.A., Buican, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  37. Nephrin localizes at the podocyte filtration slit area and is characteristically spliced in the human kidney. Holthöfer, H., Ahola, H., Solin, M.L., Wang, S., Palmen, T., Luimula, P., Miettinen, A., Kerjaschki, D. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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