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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ascites

  • Epithelial cells in culture often express vimentin as well as cytokeratins, but co-expression in vivo, as reported for pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland and metastatic carcinoma cells in ascites or pleural fluid, is still controversial [1].
  • Patients with edema, ascites, or both had significantly greater elevation of plasma aldosterone levels compared to nonedematous patients; these patients also demonstrated a substantial degree of hepatic dysfunction as evidenced by lower serum albumin levels and higher bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels [2].
  • The alloantigenic phenotype of these MuLV+ and MuLV- cell lines was H-2D+, H-2K+, Thy-1.2+ or -, PC.1+ or -, Lyt-1.2-, Lyt-2.2-, Ia.7-, and TL.2-. A unique antigen was defined on the BALB/c ascites sarcoma Meth A with antisera prepared in BALB/c or (BALB/c X C57BL/6)F1 mice [3].
  • Guinea pig hepatoma cells (line-10) growing as ascites were studied for the presence of immunoglobulin, C4, and C3 (components of complement) on their surfaces [4].
  • Rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis and ascites were investigated using balance studies [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ascites


High impact information on Ascites


Chemical compound and disease context of Ascites


Biological context of Ascites


Anatomical context of Ascites


Gene context of Ascites

  • The formation of ascites was directly associated with expression of VEGF/ VPF, and survival was inversely associated with expression of IL-8 [26].
  • Human MCP-1 protein was also detected in culture supernatants from cell lines and in ascites from human ovarian tumor xenografts which induce a peritoneal monocytosis in nude mice [27].
  • After adjustment for presence of more than 1-L ascites or age more than 50 years, nuclear p53 staining did not retain independent prognostic significance in stage III/IV tumors [28].
  • The mean volume of ascites, number of tumor cells in ascites, and the peritoneal capillary permeability were significantly suppressed by VEGF-A nAb and KDR/Flk-1 nAb treatment [29].
  • When ascites tumor cells were cultured for 7 days, TNF-alpha expression ceased but could be reinduced by treatment with TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta [30].
  • Tumor cell monitoring revealed a reduction of EpCAM-positive malignant cells in ascites by up to 5 log [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ascites

  • In vivo chemotherapy of mice bearing TA3 ascites tumors was most effective with respect to tumor growth inhibition and animal survival when GlcN and FUrd were combined [32].
  • When ovarian tumor cells, freshly isolated from carcinomatous ascites or surgical specimens, were used as target cells in the cytotoxicity assay, 8 of 14 PBLs and 5 of 7 TAL preparations lysed the autologous tumor after treatment with IL-2, while no spontaneous reactivity was observed in any of the 14 patients tested [33].
  • METHODS: Changes in plasma renin, aldosterone, and norepinephrine, and in systemic and hepatic hemodynamics were assessed 1 hour and 6 days after complete mobilization of ascites in 37 patients treated by total paracentesis plus intravenous dextran-70 infusion [34].
  • Fibronectin determination in ascites in combination with other parameters suitable for exclusion of infectious or pancreatic origin of ascites may prove useful in the differential diagnosis of ascites [35].
  • Human atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) levels were measured before and after peritoneovenous shunt implantation in 10 cirrhotic patients with ascites, in whom sodium retention is a major clinical problem [36].


  1. Co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratins in parietal endoderm cells of early mouse embryo. Lane, E.B., Hogan, B.L., Kurkinen, M., Garrels, J.I. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Hyperaldosteronism associated with liver metastases. Pandya, K.J., Whitehead, R., Crowley, J., Citrin, D.L. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell surface antigens of chemically induced sarcomas of the mouse. I. Murine leukemia virus-related antigens and alloantigens on cultured fibroblasts and sarcoma cells: description of a unique antigen on BALB/c Meth A sarcoma. DeLeo, A.B., Shiku, H., Takahashi, T., John, M., Old, L.J. J. Exp. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Persistence of immunoglobulin and complement components C4 and C3 bound to guinea pig tumor cells. Segerling, M., Ohanian, S.H., Borsos, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition for one week improves renal sodium and water excretion in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Martin, P.Y., Ohara, M., Gines, P., Xu, D.L., St John, J., Niederberger, M., Schrier, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Updating prognosis and therapeutic effect evaluation in cirrhosis with Cox's multiple regression model for time-dependent variables. Christensen, E., Schlichting, P., Andersen, P.K., Fauerholdt, L., Schou, G., Pedersen, B.V., Juhl, E., Poulsen, H., Tygstrup, N. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. A multicenter, controlled trial of ursodiol for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. UDCA-PBC Study Group. Poupon, R.E., Balkau, B., Eschwège, E., Poupon, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Elimination of Ehrlich tumours by ATP-induced growth inhibition, glutathione depletion and X-rays. Estrela, J.M., Obrador, E., Navarro, J., Lasso De la Vega, M.C., Pellicer, J.A. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Histone exchange in chromatin of hydroxyurea-blocked Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Russev, G., Vassilev, L., Tsanev, R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Substitution of guanine for a specific base in tRNA by extracts of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Itoh, Y.H., Itoh, T., Haruna, I., Watanabe, I. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid. Senger, D.R., Galli, S.J., Dvorak, A.M., Perruzzi, C.A., Harvey, V.S., Dvorak, H.F. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Adriamycin: the role of lipid peroxidation in cardiac toxicity and tumor response. Myers, C.E., McGuire, W.P., Liss, R.H., Ifrim, I., Grotzinger, K., Young, R.C. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. An optimal diuretic regimen for cirrhotic ascites. A controlled trial evaluating safety and efficacy of spironolactone and furosemide. Fuller, R.K., Khambatta, P.B., Gobezie, G.C. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of products synthesized by galactosyltransferase purified from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients. Chatterjee, S.K., Bhattacharya, M., Barlow, J.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Metabolic fate on 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorouracil in mice bearing ascites sarcoma 180. Iigo, M., Kuretani, K., Hoshi, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Macrophages from nephrotic rats regulate apolipoprotein E biosynthesis and cholesterol content independently. Bass, J., Fisher, E.A., Prack, M.M., Williams, D.L., Marsh, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Reversible loss in suspension culture of a major cell-surface glycoprotein of the TA3-Ha mouse tumor. Miller, D.K., Cooper, A.G., Brown, M.C., Jeanloz, R.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Thromboxane-receptor blockade increases water diuresis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Laffi, G., Marra, F., Carloni, V., Azzena, G., De Feo, M.L., Pinzani, M., Tosti-Guerra, C., Gentilini, P. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Pathogenesis of sodium retention complicating cirrhosis: is there room for diminished "effective" arterial blood volume? Rector, W.G., Hossack, K.F. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Endogenous cannabinoids: a new system involved in the homeostasis of arterial pressure in experimental cirrhosis in the rat. Ros, J., Clària, J., To-Figueras, J., Planagumà, A., Cejudo-Martín, P., Fernández-Varo, G., Martín-Ruiz, R., Arroyo, V., Rivera, F., Rodés, J., Jiménez, W. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased total vascular capacity in conscious cirrhotic rats. Ingles, A.C., Hernandez, I., Garcia-Estañ, J., Quesada, T., Carbonell, L.F. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential localization of human pancreas cancer-associated antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in homologous pancreatic tumoral xenograft. Tan, M.H., Shimano, T., Chu, T.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages of cirrhotic rats: a host response against bacterial peritonitis. Morales-Ruiz, M., Jiménez, W., Ros, J., Solé, M., Leivas, A., Bosch-Marcé, M., Rivera, F., Arroyo, V., Rodés, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Altered biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins and host defense disorders in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Clària, J., Titos, E., Jiménez, W., Ros, J., Ginès, P., Arroyo, V., Rivera, F., Rodés, J. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Tetracycline-induced pleural symphysis for recurrent hydrothorax complicating cirrhosis. A new approach to treatment. Falchuk, K.R., Jacoby, I., Colucci, W.S., Rybak, M.E. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of angiogenesis-related genes and progression of human ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Yoneda, J., Kuniyasu, H., Crispens, M.A., Price, J.E., Bucana, C.D., Fidler, I.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. The detection and localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human ovarian cancer. Negus, R.P., Stamp, G.W., Relf, M.G., Burke, F., Malik, S.T., Bernasconi, S., Allavena, P., Sozzani, S., Mantovani, A., Balkwill, F.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Value of P-glycoprotein, glutathione S-transferase pi, c-erbB-2, and p53 as prognostic factors in ovarian carcinomas. van der Zee, A.G., Hollema, H., Suurmeijer, A.J., Krans, M., Sluiter, W.J., Willemse, P.H., Aalders, J.G., de Vries, E.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR/Flk-1 is a major regulator of malignant ascites formation in the mouse hepatocellular carcinoma model. Yoshiji, H., Kuriyama, S., Hicklin, D.J., Huber, J., Yoshii, J., Ikenaka, Y., Noguchi, R., Nakatani, T., Tsujinoue, H., Fukui, H. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Tumor necrosis factor alpha as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for ovarian cancer: monokine induction of tumor cell proliferation and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Wu, S., Boyer, C.M., Whitaker, R.S., Berchuck, A., Wiener, J.R., Weinberg, J.B., Bast, R.C. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Effective relief of malignant ascites in patients with advanced ovarian cancer by a trifunctional anti-EpCAM x anti-CD3 antibody: a phase I/II study. Burges, A., Wimberger, P., Kümper, C., Gorbounova, V., Sommer, H., Schmalfeldt, B., Pfisterer, J., Lichinitser, M., Makhson, A., Moiseyenko, V., Lahr, A., Schulze, E., Jäger, M., Ströhlein, M.A., Heiss, M.M., Gottwald, T., Lindhofer, H., Kimmig, R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of D-glucosamine and 6-azauridine on nucleotide contents, 5-fluorouridine uptake, and cytotoxicity in TA3 mammary tumor cells. Holstege, A., Keppler, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Lymphokine-activated killer activity of tumor-associated and peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from patients with ascites ovarian tumors. Allavena, P., Zanaboni, F., Rossini, S., Merendino, A., Bonazzi, C., Vassena, L., Mangioni, C., Mantovani, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction: mechanism and effect on hepatic hemodynamics in cirrhosis. Ruiz-del-Arbol, L., Monescillo, A., Jimenéz, W., Garcia-Plaza, A., Arroyo, V., Rodés, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Fibronectin concentration in ascites differentiates between malignant and nonmalignant ascites. Schölmerich, J., Volk, B.A., Köttgen, E., Ehlers, S., Gerok, W. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Plasma atrial natriuretic factor in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Effect of peritoneovenous shunt implantation. Klepetko, W., Müller, C., Hartter, E., Miholics, J., Schwarz, C., Woloszczuk, W., Moeschl, P. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
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