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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Promotion of trans-platinum in vivo effects on renal heme and hemoprotein metabolism by D,L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine. Possible role of glutathione.

We have examined the toxicity of trans-platinum (trans-diamminedichloroplatinum II) to heme and hemoprotein metabolism in the kidney of glutathione (GSH)-depleted rats and compared it with that produced by cis-platinum. Unlike cis-platinum treatment (7.0 mg/kg, i.v.) which caused after 7 days significant increases in cytochromes P450 and b5, and a marked decrease in porphyrin content of the kidney, trans-platinum alone (7 mg/kg, i.v.) did not elicit notable changes in these variables when measured 1 or 7 days after treatment. Also, cis-platinum treatment significantly altered the heme degradation pathway by increasing the activity of heme oxygenase and decreasing that of biliverdin reductase; trans-platinum treatment did not elicit a response in these activities. However, when rats were given the inhibitor of GSH synthesis, D,L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), the subsequent administration (2 hr later) of trans-platinum produced, in 1 day, the spectrum of responses that were mediated by cis-platinum after 7 days. In the kidneys of rats treated with BSO plus trans-platinum the concentration of platinum measured only about 50% of that detected in the kidneys of rats treated with trans-platinum alone. In the liver, trans-platinum by itself or in combination with BSO was ineffective in altering the measured variables of heme metabolism. The possibility that similarity between cis-platinum and trans-platinum plus BSO may extend to systems other than heme metabolism, e.g. GSH synthesis and degradation, was examined. cis-Platinum caused significant inhibition of both renal gamma-glutamyl synthetase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase after 7 days, but not after 1 day. Twenty-four hours after treatment, BSO + trans-platinum caused inhibition of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity, whereas this activity in animals treated with BSO alone had returned to control values. At this time point, neither oxidized glutathione (GSSG)-reductase nor gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was affected by trans-platinum + BSO treatment. The findings suggest that GSH constitutes an important defense mechanism against trans-platinum alteration of heme metabolism and may play a role in cellular accumulation of the drug in an inactive complex. It is proposed that BSO treatment, despite resulting in a diminished intracellular concentration of trans-platinum, allows reaction of the metal complex with target molecules by virtue of its ability to deplete GSH.[1]


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