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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Causes of adverse responses to soybean milk replacers in young calves.

Sixty Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups following an initial 3-d colostrum feeding period. They were fed either whole cows' milk or ethanol-extracted or hexane-extracted soy flour in milk replacers to 6 wk of age. These products were used to identify possible causative factors associated with adverse responses to soybean in milk replacers. Average weight gains to 6 wk of age were 13.8, 7.3, and 2.8 kg and mortality was 0/20, 4/20, and 9/20 for calves fed milk, ethanol-extracted soy, and hexane-extracted soy, respectively. Heart rates (beats/min) were increased by the soy flours: 99.1 (ethanol extracted) and 116.3 (hexane extracted) versus 87.6 (milk). There was also an increased respiratory rate (breaths/min) with 67.6 and 61.1 versus 41.6 for the same treatment groups. Intradermal wheal growths verified an allergic sensitivity to the soybean products. Serum prostaglandin F2 alpha was 22% higher in the serum of calves fed the hexane-extracted soy milk replacer than in the serum of calves fed milk. Phenolic compounds in the soybean flour were implicated as possible causative factors in the adverse responses to the soybean milk replacers. Ethanol extraction of the soy flour was more effective than hexane extraction in removing phenolic compounds (2.19 vs. 1.00% phenolics).[1]


  1. Causes of adverse responses to soybean milk replacers in young calves. Gardner, R.W., Shupe, M.G., Brimhall, W., Weber, D.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
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