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Disease relevance of Flour


High impact information on Flour

  • Zinc absorption was not significantly different between the zinc oxide and zinc sulfate cofortified flours (24.1 +/- 8.2% compared with 23.7 +/- 11.2%; P = 0.87) [2].
  • As a result, in 1993 the Venezuela Government created the Special Commission for Enrichment of Foods. That same year a fortification program began in which precooked yellow and white maize and wheat flours were enriched with 20 and 50 mg Fe (as ferrous fumarate)/kg flour, respectively [3].
  • However, the boiled flours produced higher glucose and insulin responses than did the corresponding boiled kernels [4].
  • Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients [5].
  • The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil products as well as cereal flours and meals with vitamin A has been shown [6].

Biological context of Flour


Associations of Flour with chemical compounds

  • This study was conducted to compare in vivo the acute effects of heated (+) and (-) gossypol cottonseed flours with those of soybean flour on lipid digestion and absorption in growing rats [8].
  • These results indicate that whole wheat flours can strikingly affect cecal SCFA, especially butyrate, and are effective plasma cholesterol-lowering agents [9].
  • Greatest [14C]-radioactivity was found in triacylglycerols, then in free fatty acids, in diacylglycerols and last in phospholipids in rats fed the three flours [8].
  • In 1938 voluntary enrichment of flours and breads with niacin and Fe was initiated to reduce the incidence of pellagra and Fe-deficiency anaemia respectively [10].
  • RESULTS: The most common etiological agents were isocyanates (41.6%), flours (19.8%), woods (9.7%) and natural rubber latex (7.6%) [11].

Gene context of Flour

  • The flours provided 50% of diet energy, with casein added to make 8% energy as protein, vegetable oils to make 20% as fat and corn syrup solids and sugar to make 72% carbohydrate (CHO) energy [12].
  • Western blotting using sera from 21 wheat flour hypersensitive individuals identified a large number of allergens in the different flours [13].
  • The respective protein isolates were obtained from the flours by using isoelectric precipitation, with a protein content of 71.13% for the P. lunatus isolate (PPI) and 73.75% for the C. ensiformis isolate (CPI) [14].
  • The potential of intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated for differentiating between processed grains (flours, pasta, and semolinas) of different wheat cereal products [15].
  • Classification of cereal flours by chemometric analysis of MIR spectra [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flour

  • To estimate the quantity of ochratoxin A that might be ingested by Italian consumers from these foods, 211 cereal derivatives (flours and bakery products) were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography [17].
  • Nine ileostomy subjects were given a polysaccharide-free diet with a breakfast supplement, on eac of 2 d (two subjects) or 3 d (seven subjects), of biscuits made from wheat, potato or banana flours or from moist-heat-processed wheat or maize flours [18].
  • Genomic DNA was extracted from Roundup Ready soybean and maize MON810 standard flours, according to four different methods, and quantified by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with the aim of determining the influence of the extraction methods on the DNA quantification through real-time PCR [19].


  1. Rye flour allergens associated with baker's asthma. Correlation between in vivo and in vitro activities and comparison with their wheat and barley homologues. García-Casado, G., Armentia, A., Sánchez-Monge, R., Malpica, J.M., Salcedo, G. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Cofortification of iron-fortified flour with zinc sulfate, but not zinc oxide, decreases iron absorption in Indonesian children. Herman, S., Griffin, I.J., Suwarti, S., Ernawati, F., Permaesih, D., Pambudi, D., Abrams, S.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Early response to the effect of iron fortification in the Venezuelan population. Layrisse, M., Chaves, J.F., Mendez-Castellano, n.u.l.l., Bosch, V., Tropper, E., Bastardo, B., González, E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Glucose and insulin responses to barley products: influence of food structure and amylose-amylopectin ratio. Granfeldt, Y., Liljeberg, H., Drews, A., Newman, R., Björck, I. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients. Di Cagno, R., De Angelis, M., Auricchio, S., Greco, L., Clarke, C., De Vincenzi, M., Giovannini, C., D'Archivio, M., Landolfo, F., Parrilli, G., Minervini, F., Arendt, E., Gobbetti, M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Food fortification to reduce vitamin A deficiency: International Vitamin A Consultative Group recommendations. Dary, O., Mora, J.O. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Causes of adverse responses to soybean milk replacers in young calves. Gardner, R.W., Shupe, M.G., Brimhall, W., Weber, D.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Digestion and absorption rates of [3H]-oleic acid and [14C]-triolein do not differ in rats fed heated (-) and (+) gossypol cottonseed and soybean flours. Prost, J., Belleville, J., Fustier-Bertrand, V. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Whole wheat and triticale flours with differing viscosities stimulate cecal fermentations and lower plasma and hepatic lipids in rats. Adam, A., Levrat-Verny, M.A., Lopez, H.W., Leuillet, M., Demigné, C., Rémésy, C. J. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Public health aspects of food fortification: a question of balance. Fletcher, R.J., Bell, I.P., Lambert, J.P. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Features and severity of occupational asthma upon diagnosis: an Italian multicentric case review. Moscato, G., Dellabianca, A., Maestrelli, P., Paggiaro, P., Romano, C., De Zotti, R., Marabini, A., Voltolini, S., Crippa, M., Previdi, M., Bramé, B., Benzon, R., Siracusa, A. Allergy (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of cassava variety and processing on energy and protein digestibility and utilization by young children. Graham, G.G., Lembcke, J., Morales, E. J. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of crossreacting wheat, rye, barley and soya flour allergens using sera from individuals with wheat-induced asthma. Sandiford, C.P., Tee, R.D., Newman-Taylor, A.J. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional properties of flours and protein isolates from Phaseolus lunatus and Canavalia ensiformis seeds. Chel-Guerrero, L., Pérez-Flores, V., Betancur-Ancona, D., Dávila-Ortiz, G. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive tool for differentiating various cereal products: a preliminary investigation. Karoui, R., Cartaud, G., Dufour, E. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Classification of cereal flours by chemometric analysis of MIR spectra. Cocchi, M., Foca, G., Lucisano, M., Marchetti, A., Pagani, M.A., Tassi, L., Ulrici, A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Ochratoxin A in conventional and organic cereal derivatives: a survey of the Italian market, 2001-02. Biffi, R., Munari, M., Dioguardi, L., Ballabio, C., Cattaneo, A., Galli, C.L., Restani, P. Food additives and contaminants. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Measurement of resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. Englyst, H.N., Kingman, S.M., Hudson, G.J., Cummings, J.H. Br. J. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the genomic DNA extracted from GMO and non-GMO foodstuffs with four different extraction methods. Peano, C., Samson, M.C., Palmieri, L., Gulli, M., Marmiroli, N. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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