The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

MOLI001040     ethanol

Synonyms: AC1L9OZD
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of ethanol

  • On each testing day, the mother expressed a small quantity of breast milk and then drank either orange juice or orange juice containing a small quantity of ethanol (0.3 g per kilogram of body weight) [1].
  • Prevention of methanol toxicity by ethanol therapy [2].
  • After consuming comparable amounts of ethanol, women have higher blood ethanol concentrations than men, even with allowance for differences in size, and are more susceptible to alcoholic liver disease [3].
  • Habitual consumption of ethanol in excess of energy needs probably favors lipid storage and weight gain [4].
  • However, 34 recipients of other tissues--2 receiving corneas, 3 receiving lyophilized soft tissue, 25 receiving ethanol-treated bone, 3 receiving dura mater treated with gamma radiation, and 1 receiving marrow-evacuated, fresh-frozen bone--tested negative for HIV-1 antibody [5].

Psychiatry related information on ethanol

  • Abrupt discontinuation of use of sedatives such as benzodiazepines and ethanol can also produce PMS-like withdrawal symptoms [6].
  • The substantial and persistent memory losses produced in our rats by ethanol intake were associated with an impairment of cholinergic function, and were reversed by cholinergic-rich transplants into cortex and hippocampus [7].
  • Thus, genes coding for the GABAA receptor or associated proteins may be critical determinants of individual differences in ethanol sensitivity [8].
  • The main features of alcoholic rhabdomyolysis-skeletal muscle necrosis, marked elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase, and myoglobinuria-were produced in rats by a combination of relatively prolonged (2 to 4 weeks) exposure to ethanol and a brief period of food deprivation [9].
  • Fetal injury associated with maternal ethanol ingestion is a major cause of congenital anomalies and mental retardation [10].

High impact information on ethanol

  • We propose that proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is a key determinant of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol [11].
  • Consistent with this, we find that enhanced ethanol sensitivity of cheapdate can be reversed by treatment with agents that increase cAMP levels or PKA activity [12].
  • Conversely, genetic or pharmacological reduction in PKA activity results in increased sensitivity to ethanol [12].
  • Taken together, our results provide functional evidence for the involvement of the cAMP signal transduction pathway in the behavioral response to intoxicating levels of ethanol [12].
  • RESULTS: In complementary yeast assays, a 1:200 dilution of an ethanol extract of PC-SPES had estrogenic activity similar to that of 1 nM estradiol, and in ovariectomized CD-1 mice, the herbal mixture increased uterine weights substantially [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of ethanol


Biological context of ethanol


Anatomical context of ethanol

  • To investigate the possible effect on such enzymes of long-term consumption of large quantities of ethanol, we assayed the activities of two enzymes, monoamine oxidase and adenylate cyclase, in platelet membranes of men with alcoholism and controls matched for sex and age [21].
  • We have found that live and ethanol-fixed fibroblasts, when covered with conditioned medium containing tissue plasminogen activator, associate with the enzyme and remove it from the medium [22].
  • In contrast, suppression of granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells required 3.0 per cent ethanol or 0.03 per cent acetaldehyde [23].
  • Thirty patients with lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract were long-term users of aspirin, ethanol, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or a combination of these substances [24].
  • We conclude that ethanol ingested through breast milk has a slight but significant detrimental effect on motor development, but not mental development, in breast-fed infants [25].

Associations of ethanol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ethanol

  • Interestingly, following induction of stress by heat shock, high salt, or ethanol, conditions under which most mRNA export is blocked, Npl3p is still exported from the nucleus [30].
  • We also ruled out any compensatory upregulation of alpha6 subunits that might have accounted for the ethanol effect in Gabra4(-/-) mice [31].
  • The presence of ethanol in the growth medium was shown to result in ADH mRNA accumulation presumably due to transcriptional induction of the gene [32].
  • RAS1 mRNA levels and protein synthesis are very low at all stages of growth when ethanol rather than dextrose is provided as the sole carbon source [33].
  • Analysis of proteins synthesized in minicells with a pldA coding plasmid in the presence of 8% ethanol did not reveal any new bands on polyacrylamide gels, whereas the control beta-lactamase clearly showed its unprocessed form under the same conditions [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ethanol

  • The first-pass metabolism was determined on the basis of the difference in areas under the curves of blood alcohol concentrations after intravenous and oral administration of ethanol (0.3 g per kilogram of body weight) [3].
  • The standard treatment is inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol, given in intoxicating doses, and adjunctive hemodialysis [35].
  • We studied the effect of ethanol on 24-hour substrate-oxidation rates in eight normal men during two 48-hour sessions in an indirect-calorimetry chamber [4].
  • Repeated perfusion with seawater alternately with and without ethanol leads to a progressive diminution of this specific effect of ethanol, such that after the third application ethanol no longer has any effect on the rate constant of decay of posttetanic poteniation [36].
  • Hence the ethanol-preferring line of rats may be suitable animal model of alcoholism [37].


  1. The transfer of alcohol to human milk. Effects on flavor and the infant's behavior. Mennella, J.A., Beauchamp, G.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention of methanol toxicity by ethanol therapy. Bergeron, R., Cardinal, J., Geadah, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. High blood alcohol levels in women. The role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism. Frezza, M., di Padova, C., Pozzato, G., Terpin, M., Baraona, E., Lieber, C.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of ethanol on fat storage in healthy subjects. Suter, P.M., Schutz, Y., Jequier, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a seronegative organ and tissue donor. Simonds, R.J., Holmberg, S.D., Hurwitz, R.L., Coleman, T.R., Bottenfield, S., Conley, L.J., Kohlenberg, S.H., Castro, K.G., Dahan, B.A., Schable, C.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. GABA(A) receptor alpha4 subunit suppression prevents withdrawal properties of an endogenous steroid. Smith, S.S., Gong, Q.H., Hsu, F.C., Markowitz, R.S., ffrench-Mullen, J.M., Li, X. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Cholinergic-rich brain transplants reverse alcohol-induced memory deficits. Arendt, T., Allen, Y., Sinden, J., Schugens, M.M., Marchbanks, R.M., Lantos, P.L., Gray, J.A. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic differences in the ethanol sensitivity of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Wafford, K.A., Burnett, D.M., Dunwiddie, T.V., Harris, R.A. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcoholic rhabdomyolysis: an experimental model in the rat. Haller, R.G., Drachman, D.B. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Acetaldehyde production and transfer by the perfused human placental cotyledon. Karl, P.I., Gordon, B.H., Lieber, C.S., Fisher, S.E. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased ethanol resistance and consumption in eps8 knockout mice correlates with altered actin dynamics. Offenh??user, N., Castelletti, D., Mapelli, L., Soppo, B.E., Regondi, M.C., Rossi, P., D'Angelo, E., Frassoni, C., Amadeo, A., Tocchetti, A., Pozzi, B., Disanza, A., Guarnieri, D., Betsholtz, C., Scita, G., Heberlein, U., Di Fiore, P.P. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Ethanol intoxication in Drosophila: Genetic and pharmacological evidence for regulation by the cAMP signaling pathway. Moore, M.S., DeZazzo, J., Luk, A.Y., Tully, T., Singh, C.M., Heberlein, U. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical and biologic activity of an estrogenic herbal combination (PC-SPES) in prostate cancer. DiPaola, R.S., Zhang, H., Lambert, G.H., Meeker, R., Licitra, E., Rafi, M.M., Zhu, B.T., Spaulding, H., Goodin, S., Toledano, M.B., Hait, W.N., Gallo, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Ethanol and oral diazepam absorption. Hayes, S.L., Pablo, G., Radomski, T., Palmer, R.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Ethanol-induced hyperuricemia: evidence for increased urate production by activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Faller, J., Fox, I.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Adenosine diphosphate effect on contractility of human muscle actomyosin: inhibition by ethanol and acetaldehyde. Puszkin, S., Rubin, E. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of phenolic glycolipid-1 from Mycobacterium leprae on the antimicrobial activity of human macrophages. Neill, M.A., Klebanoff, S.J. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of a 3-day fast and of ethanol on splanchnic metabolism of FFA, amino acids, and carbohydrates in healthy young men. Wolfe, B.M., Havel, J.R., Marliss, E.B., Kane, J.P., Seymour, J., Ahuja, S.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Ethylene glycol poisoning: pharmacokinetics during therapy with ethanol and hemodialysis. Peterson, C.D., Collins, A.J., Himes, J.M., Bullock, M.L., Keane, W.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Ethanol potentiation of aspirin-induced prolongation of the bleeding time. Deykin, D., Janson, P., McMahon, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Differences in platelet enzyme activity between alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Tabakoff, B., Hoffman, P.L., Lee, J.M., Saito, T., Willard, B., De Leon-Jones, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. The regulation of tissue plasminogen activator activity by human fibroblasts. Hoal, E.G., Wilson, E.L., Dowdle, E.B. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Suppression of hematopoietic-progenitor-cell proliferation by ethanol and acetaldehyde. Meagher, R.C., Sieber, F., Spivak, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Relative frequency of upper gastrointestinal and colonic lesions in patients with positive fecal occult-blood tests. Rockey, D.C., Koch, J., Cello, J.P., Sanders, L.L., McQuaid, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Maternal alcohol use during breast-feeding and infant mental and motor development at one year. Little, R.E., Anderson, K.W., Ervin, C.H., Worthington-Roberts, B., Clarren, S.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Prospective comparison of indirect methods for detecting lactase deficiency. Newcomer, A.D., McGill, D.B., Thomas, P.J., Hofmann, A.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. DNA sequences of two yeast promoter-up mutants. Russell, D.W., Smith, M., Cox, D., Williamson, V.M., Young, E.T. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Chronic ethanol causes heterologous desensitization of receptors by reducing alpha s messenger RNA. Mochly-Rosen, D., Chang, F.H., Cheever, L., Kim, M., Diamond, I., Gordon, A.S. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Formation of proinsulin by immobilized Bacillus subtilis. Mosbach, K., Birnbaum, S., Hardy, K., Davies, J., Bülow, L. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Uncoupling of the hnRNP Npl3p from mRNAs during the stress-induced block in mRNA export. Krebber, H., Taura, T., Lee, M.S., Silver, P.A. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. A new naturally occurring GABA(A) receptor subunit partnership with high sensitivity to ethanol. Glykys, J., Peng, Z., Chandra, D., Homanics, G.E., Houser, C.R., Mody, I. Nat. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification and molecular analysis of a third Aspergillus nidulans alcohol dehydrogenase gene. McKnight, G.L., Kato, H., Upshall, A., Parker, M.D., Saari, G., O'Hara, P.J. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control the expression of the RAS1 and RAS2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Breviario, D., Hinnebusch, A.G., Dhar, R. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. The pro- and mature forms of the E. coli K-12 outer membrane phospholipase A are identical. de Geus, P., Verheij, H.M., Riegman, N.H., Hoekstra, W.P., de Haas, G.H. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  35. Fomepizole for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. Methylpyrazole for Toxic Alcohols Study Group. Brent, J., McMartin, K., Phillips, S., Burkhart, K.K., Donovan, J.W., Wells, M., Kulig, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Sustained tolerance to a specific effect of ethanol on posttetanic potentiation in Aplysia. Traynor, M.E., Woodson, P.B., Schlapfer, W.T., Barondes, S.H. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  37. Intragastric self-infusion of ethanol by ethanol-preferring and -nonpreferring lines of rats. Waller, M.B., McBride, W.J., Gatto, G.J., Lumeng, L., Li, T.K. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities