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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cell fate in the polar trophectoderm of mouse blastocysts as studied by microinjection of cell lineage tracers.

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), together with Fast Green or rhodamine-conjugated dextran (RDX), was used as an intracellular lineage tracer to determine cell fate in the polar trophectoderm of 3.5-day-old mouse embryos. In HRP-injected midstage (approximately 39-cell) and expanded (approximately 65-cell) blastocysts incubated for 24 hr, the central polar trophectoderm cell was displaced from the embryonic pole an average of 20 micron (5% of blastocyst circumference) and 29 micron (6% of blastocyst circumference), respectively. Expanded blastocysts injected with HRP + Fast Green and incubated for 24 hr or with HRP + RDX and incubated for 48 hr showed a displacement of 24 micron (4% of blastocyst circumference) and 88 micron (14% of blastocyst circumference), respectively. Up to 10 HRP-positive trophectoderm cells were observed among embryos incubated for 48 hr, indicating that in those cases, the labeled progenitor cells had divided at least three times. Our observations show that the central polar trophectoderm cell divides in the plane of the trophectoderm in expanded blastocysts and, along with its descendants, is displaced toward the mural trophectoderm. The systematic tandem displacement of labeled cells and their descendants toward the abembryonic pole suggests the presence of a proliferative area at the embryonic pole of the blastocyst. Large shifts in inner cell mass (ICM) position in relation to the trophectoderm do not occur during blastocyst expansion. Furthermore, random movements within the polar trophectoderm population do not account for the replacement of labeled cells by unlabeled polar trophectoderm cells. Rather, we propose the hypothesis that the ICM contributes these replacement cells to the polar trophectoderm during blastocyst expansion.[1]


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