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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum.

The mycotoxin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), inhibits the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase (EC and Ca2+ transport activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Goeger, D. E., Riley, R. T., Dorner, J. W., and Cole, R. J. (1988) Biochem. Pharmacol. 37, 978-981). We found that at low ATP concentrations (0.5-2 microM) the inhibition of ATPase activity was essentially complete at a CPA concentration of 6-8 nmol/mg protein, indicating stoichiometric reaction of CPA with the Ca2+-ATPase. Cyclopiazonic acid caused similar inhibition of the Ca2+-stimulated ATP hydrolysis in intact sarcoplasmic reticulum and in a purified preparation of Ca2+-ATPase. Cyclopiazonic acid also inhibited the Ca2+-dependent acetylphosphate, p-nitrophenylphosphate and carbamylphosphate hydrolysis by sarcoplasmic reticulum. ATP protected the enzyme in a competitive manner against inhibition by CPA, while a 10(5)-fold change in free Ca2+ concentration had only moderate effect on the extent of inhibition. CPA did not influence the crystallization of Ca2+-ATPase by vanadate or the reaction of fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate with the Ca2+-ATPase, but it completely blocked at concentrations as low as 1-2 mol of CPA/mol of ATPase the fluorescence changes induced by Ca2+ and [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in FITC-labeled sarcoplasmic reticulum and inhibited the cleavage of Ca2+-ATPase by trypsin at the T2 cleavage site in the presence of EGTA. These observations suggest that CPA interferes with the ATP-induced conformational changes related to Ca2+ transport. The effect of CPA on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase appears to be fairly specific, since the kidney and brain Na+,K+-ATPase (EC, the gastric H+,K+-ATPase (EC, the mitochondrial F1-ATPase (EC, the Ca2+-ATPase of erythrocytes, and the Mg2+-activated ATPase of T-tubules and surface membranes of rat skeletal muscle were not inhibited by CPA, even at concentrations as high as 1000 nmol/mg protein.[1]


  1. Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Seidler, N.W., Jona, I., Vegh, M., Martonosi, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
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