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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of a water-soluble tris-galactoside-terminated cholesterol derivative on the fate of low density lipoproteins and liposomes.

A triantennary galactose-terminated cholesterol derivative, N-(tris(beta-D-galactopyranosyloxymethyl) methyl)-N alpha-(4-(5-cholesten-3 beta-yloxy)succinyl)glycinamide (Tris-Gal-Chol), which dissolves easily in water, was added to human low density lipoproteins (LDL) in varying quantities. Upon addition to LDL, Tris-Gal-Chol was immediately incorporated, and after intravenous injection into rats, the iodine-labeled apolipoprotein B radioactivity was readily associated with the liver. The incorporation of 5 or 13 micrograms of Tris-Gal-Chol into LDL (20 micrograms of protein) stimulates the parenchymal cell association of LDL 6- and 10-fold, respectively, at 10 min after injection. For non-parenchymal cells, the cell association is 60- and 70-fold stimulated, respectively. It can be calculated that non-parenchymal cells (mainly Kupffer cells) are for 80-90% responsible for the increased, galactose-mediated, interaction of Tris-Gal-Chol LDL with the liver. The increased interaction of LDL with the cells upon Tris-Gal-Chol incorporation is followed by degradation of the apolipoprotein B in the lysosomes. Incorporation of Tris-Gal-Chol into unilamellar liposomes (10 mol %) leads to an increased cell association of the enclosed [3H]inulin to parenchymal cells (1.4-fold) and non-parenchymal cells (11.8-fold). It is concluded that Tris-Gal-Chol incorporation into LDL leads to a markedly increased catabolism of LDL by the liver which might be used for lowering serum LDL levels. The possibility of increasing the interaction of LDL or liposomes with specific liver cell types by Tris-Gal-Chol might also have an application for targeting drugs or other compounds of interest to these cells.[1]


  1. The effect of a water-soluble tris-galactoside-terminated cholesterol derivative on the fate of low density lipoproteins and liposomes. van Berkel, T.J., Kruijt, J.K., Spanjer, H.H., Nagelkerke, J.F., Harkes, L., Kempen, H.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
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