The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene during progressive stages of human colon carcinoma.

A series of colon carcinomas, adenomas, and adjacent tissues were analyzed for ploidy alterations and mutations in KRAS2. To increase the sensitivity for identifying mutations, we used histological enrichment, cell sorting, and DNA amplification by the polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction followed by direct DNA sequence analysis. Of the 40 carcinomas analyzed, 27 contained aneuploid cells and 26 contained mutations at the first position of codon 12 of KRAS2. Of the 12 adenomas studied, 4 contained aneuploid cells and 9 contained the same mutation at codon 12. In both adenomas and carcinomas, mutations were identified in both diploid and aneuploid cells. In some cases, regions of histologically benign mucosa adjacent to the carcinoma contained mutations. These combined results suggest that mutations in KRAS2 occur early in the development of human colon carcinoma, before change in ploidy, and that these mutations exist in diploid cells from which an aneuploid subpopulation arises. Furthermore, mutations may exist in histologically normal mucosa in regions adjacent to carcinoma, suggesting that a field of genetically abnormal mucosa may surround these tumors.[1]


  1. Mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene during progressive stages of human colon carcinoma. Burmer, G.C., Loeb, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities