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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Adenoma


Psychiatry related information on Adenoma


High impact information on Adenoma

  • Bi-allelic inactivation of TCF1 in hepatic adenomas [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Calcium supplementation is associated with a significant - though moderate - reduction in the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas [2].
  • We also prospectively examined the prevalence of aberrant crypt foci in 11 subjects (4 normal subjects, 6 with adenoma, and 1 with cancer) before and after the administration of 100 mg of sulindac three times a day for 8 to 12 months and compared the results with those in 9 untreated subjects (4 normal subjects and 5 with adenoma) [13].
  • Mutations of the Down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) gene cause congenital chloride diarrhoea [14].
  • The association between brain tumors and multiple colorectal adenomas can result from two distinct types of germ-line defects: mutation of the APC gene or mutation of a mismatch-repair gene [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Adenoma

  • We conclude that CT scans, together with appropriate biochemical measurements, are useful in diagnosing and locating aldosterone-producing adenomas [3].
  • The tumors from 12 of the women with nonsecreting adenomas were cultured, and the secretion of FSH, LH, and LH beta in culture was determined [16].
  • Relation between the frequency of colorectal adenoma and the serum cholesterol level [17].
  • We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to test the efficacy of beta carotene and vitamins C and E in preventing colorectal adenoma, a precursor of invasive cancer [18].
  • Eleven of the 16 women with apparently nonsecreting adenomas had significant increases in serum LH beta in response to TRH, 3 had FSH responses, and 4 had LH responses [16].
  • Our findings suggest that increased serum levels of IL-6 are positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma in men, independently of insulin and HOMA-IR [19].

Biological context of Adenoma

  • Of 34 sporadic adenomas from patients without MEN-1, 9 showed similar allelic losses in chromosome 11; in 7 the losses included the apparent MEN-1 locus [20].
  • A reduction in the DNA methyltransferase activity in Min mice due to heterozygosity of the DNA methyltransferase gene, in conjunction with a weekly dose of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine, reduced the average number of intestinal adenomas from 113 in the control mice to only 2 polyps in the treated heterozygotes [21].
  • The results demonstrate that loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion is one rate-limiting step in the progression from adenoma to carcinoma [22].
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) is a disease characterized by the development of multiple colorectal adenomas, and affected individuals carry germline mutations in the APC gene [23].
  • Loss of p18, like that of p27, but not other CDK inhibitor genes, leads to a gradual progression from intermediate lobe pituitary hyperplasia in young mice to an adenoma by 10 months of age with a nearly complete penetrance [24].

Anatomical context of Adenoma


Gene context of Adenoma

  • Thus, somatostatin analogues with improved selective binding affinity for these receptor subtypes may be effective in the treatment of either GH- or PRL-secreting adenomas [29].
  • Inhibitory effects of 1 and 10 micrograms/dl dexamethasone on ACTH release and POMC mRNA levels in nonadenoma cells were greater than those in adenoma cells [30].
  • Mice homozygous for a null cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) (also called PTGS2) allele have a dramatically reduced susceptibility to the development of intestinal adenomas [31].
  • These results suggest the following: (a) that the mRNA in cultured pituitary adenoma cells is qualitatively the same as that in vivo; (b) that responses of mRNA levels to CRH are time- and dose-dependent; and (c) that adenoma cells resist the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on POMC mRNA levels and ACTH release [30].
  • However, in four other adenomas, tumor heterogeneity was demonstrated, since c-K-ras mutations were detected only in discrete portions [32].
  • Variants that enhance TGFB1 production may be associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal adenoma [33].
  • Inflammatory HCA expressing CRP and SAA was documented in 36 of 57 adenomas (63%) [34].
  • As the 5q15-q31.1 region harbors the APC locus, APC mutation status was investigated, showing significantly less mutations in flat adenomas (P = 0.04) [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adenoma

  • Sulindac reduces the number and size of colorectal adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, but its effect is incomplete, and it is unlikely to replace colectomy as primary therapy [1].
  • A comparative RT-PCR approach revealed signals for both V3 receptor and CHR receptor mRNAs in 17 of 18 ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, and 6 of 6 normal pituitaries; in six growth hormone- or prolactin-secreting adenomas, a very faint V3 receptor signal was observed in three cases, and CRH receptor signal was undetected in all [36].
  • METHODS: The expression and methylation status of 6 RASSF family genes were examined using RT-PCR and bisulfite PCR in CRC cell lines and in primary CRCs and colorectal adenomas [37].
  • RESULTS: The Northern blots revealed an approximately threefold increase in the level of COX-2 messenger RNA in Min mouse adenoma compared with normal mucosa [38].
  • At both 8-mm and 10-mm adenoma size thresholds, the per-patient sensitivities of CAD were not significantly different from those of optical colonoscopy before segmental unblinding [39].


  1. Treatment of colonic and rectal adenomas with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis. Giardiello, F.M., Hamilton, S.R., Krush, A.J., Piantadosi, S., Hylind, L.M., Celano, P., Booker, S.V., Robinson, C.R., Offerhaus, G.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prevention Study Group. Baron, J.A., Beach, M., Mandel, J.S., van Stolk, R.U., Haile, R.W., Sandler, R.S., Rothstein, R., Summers, R.W., Snover, D.C., Beck, G.J., Bond, J.H., Greenberg, E.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of computed tomography in diagnosing the cause of primary aldosteronism. White, E.A., Schambelan, M., Rost, C.R., Biglieri, E.G., Moss, A.A., Korobkin, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Aberrant interleukin-1 receptors in a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome. Willenberg, H.S., Stratakis, C.A., Marx, C., Ehrhart-Bornstein, M., Chrousos, G.P., Bornstein, S.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic identification of Mom-1, a major modifier locus affecting Min-induced intestinal neoplasia in the mouse. Dietrich, W.F., Lander, E.S., Smith, J.S., Moser, A.R., Gould, K.A., Luongo, C., Borenstein, N., Dove, W. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. High frequency of loss of heterozygosity in imprinted, compared with nonimprinted, genomic regions in follicular thyroid carcinomas and atypical adenomas. Sarquis, M.S., Weber, F., Shen, L., Broelsch, C.E., Jhiang, S.M., Zedenius, J., Frilling, A., Eng, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of colorectal adenomas. Baron, J.A., Sandler, R.S., Haile, R.W., Mandel, J.S., Mott, L.A., Greenberg, E.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Association of diet and other factors with adenomatous polyps of the large bowel: a prospective autopsy study. Stemmermann, G.N., Heilbrun, L.K., Nomura, A.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Tuberous sclerosis and Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndromes. Association of two complete phakomatoses in a single individual. Troost, B.T., Savino, P.J., Lozito, J.C. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Cooperative effects of matrix metalloproteinase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on intestinal adenoma reduction. Wagenaar-Miller, R.A., Hanley, G., Shattuck-Brandt, R., DuBois, R.N., Bell, R.L., Matrisian, L.M., Morgan, D.W. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Lack of a relationship between immune function and chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in B6C3F1 mice. Germolec, D.R., Maronpot, R.R., Ackermann, M.F., Vore, S.J., Dittrich, K., Rosenthal, G.J., Luster, M.I. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Bi-allelic inactivation of TCF1 in hepatic adenomas. Bluteau, O., Jeannot, E., Bioulac-Sage, P., Marqués, J.M., Blanc, J.F., Bui, H., Beaudoin, J.C., Franco, D., Balabaud, C., Laurent-Puig, P., Zucman-Rossi, J. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer. Takayama, T., Katsuki, S., Takahashi, Y., Ohi, M., Nojiri, S., Sakamaki, S., Kato, J., Kogawa, K., Miyake, H., Niitsu, Y. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutations of the Down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) gene cause congenital chloride diarrhoea. Höglund, P., Haila, S., Socha, J., Tomaszewski, L., Saarialho-Kere, U., Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.L., Airola, K., Holmberg, C., de la Chapelle, A., Kere, J. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. The molecular basis of Turcot's syndrome. Hamilton, S.R., Liu, B., Parsons, R.E., Papadopoulos, N., Jen, J., Powell, S.M., Krush, A.J., Berk, T., Cohen, Z., Tetu, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Recognition of gonadotroph adenomas in women. Daneshdoost, L., Gennarelli, T.A., Bashey, H.M., Savino, P.J., Sergott, R.C., Bosley, T.M., Snyder, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Relation between the frequency of colorectal adenoma and the serum cholesterol level. Neugut, A.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. Polyp Prevention Study Group. Greenberg, E.R., Baron, J.A., Tosteson, T.D., Freeman, D.H., Beck, G.J., Bond, J.H., Colacchio, T.A., Coller, J.A., Frankl, H.D., Haile, R.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Serum Interleukin-6, Insulin, and HOMA-IR in Male Individuals with Colorectal Adenoma. Sasaki, Y., Takeda, H., Sato, T., Orii, T., Nishise, S., Nagino, K., Iwano, D., Yaoita, T., Yoshizawa, K., Saito, H., Tanaka, Y., Kawata, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2012) [Pubmed]
  20. Clonality of parathyroid tumors in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Friedman, E., Sakaguchi, K., Bale, A.E., Falchetti, A., Streeten, E., Zimering, M.B., Weinstein, L.S., McBride, W.O., Nakamura, Y., Brandi, M.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation. Laird, P.W., Jackson-Grusby, L., Fazeli, A., Dickinson, S.L., Jung, W.E., Li, E., Weinberg, R.A., Jaenisch, R. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. A causal role for E-cadherin in the transition from adenoma to carcinoma. Perl, A.K., Wilgenbus, P., Dahl, U., Semb, H., Christofori, G. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Rapid colorectal adenoma formation initiated by conditional targeting of the Apc gene. Shibata, H., Toyama, K., Shioya, H., Ito, M., Hirota, M., Hasegawa, S., Matsumoto, H., Takano, H., Akiyama, T., Toyoshima, K., Kanamaru, R., Kanegae, Y., Saito, I., Nakamura, Y., Shiba, K., Noda, T. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. CDK inhibitors p18(INK4c) and p27(Kip1) mediate two separate pathways to collaboratively suppress pituitary tumorigenesis. Franklin, D.S., Godfrey, V.L., Lee, H., Kovalev, G.I., Schoonhoven, R., Chen-Kiang, S., Su, L., Xiong, Y. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Clomiphene citrate and liver-cell adenoma. Carrasco, D., Barrachina, M., Prieto, M., Berenguer, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal neoplasia. MacPhee, M., Chepenik, K.P., Liddell, R.A., Nelson, K.K., Siracusa, L.D., Buchberg, A.M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Pathophysiology of acromegaly. Melmed, S., Braunstein, G.D., Horvath, E., Ezrin, C., Kovacs, K. Endocr. Rev. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Neoplastic response of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice to the polymer and dyestuff intermediates 4,4'-methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)-benzenamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, and 4,4'-methylenedianiline. Weisburger, E.K., Murthy, A.S., Lilja, H.S., Lamb, J.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype-selective analogues differentially suppress in vitro growth hormone and prolactin in human pituitary adenomas. Novel potential therapy for functional pituitary tumors. Shimon, I., Yan, X., Taylor, J.E., Weiss, M.H., Culler, M.D., Melmed, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and dexamethasone on proopiomelanocortin messenger RNA level in human corticotroph adenoma cells in vitro. Suda, T., Tozawa, F., Yamada, M., Ushiyama, T., Tomori, N., Sumitomo, T., Nakagami, Y., Demura, H., Shizume, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Testing for colon neoplasia susceptibility variants at the human COX2 locus. Wiesner, G.L., Platzer, P., Buxbaum, S., Lewis, S., MacMillen, M., Olechnowicz, J., Willis, J., Chakravarti, A., Elston, R.C., Markowitz, S.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Genetic heterogeneity of the c-K-ras locus in colorectal adenomas but not in adenocarcinomas. Shibata, D., Schaeffer, J., Li, Z.H., Capella, G., Perucho, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) gene polymorphisms and risk of advanced colorectal adenoma. Berndt, S.I., Huang, W.Y., Chatterjee, N., Yeager, M., Welch, R., Chanock, S.J., Weissfeld, J.L., Schoen, R.E., Hayes, R.B. Carcinogenesis (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Validation of a liver adenoma classification system in a tertiary referral centre: Implications for clinical practice. van Aalten, S.M., Verheij, J., Terkivatan, T., Dwarkasing, R.S., de Man, R.A., Ijzermans, J.N. J. Hepatol. (2011) [Pubmed]
  35. Chromosome 5q loss in colorectal flat adenomas. Voorham, Q.J., Carvalho, B., Spiertz, A.J., van Grieken, N.C., Mongera, S., Rondagh, E.J., van de Wiel, M.A., Jordanova, E.S., Ylstra, B., Kliment, M., Grabsch, H., Rembacken, B.J., Arai, T., de Bruïne, A.P., Sanduleanu, S., Quirke, P., Mulder, C.J., van Engeland, M., Meijer, G.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2012) [Pubmed]
  36. The pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor and the corticotroph phenotype in ectopic ACTH syndrome. de Keyzer, Y., Lenne, F., Auzan, C., Jégou, S., René, P., Vaudry, H., Kuhn, J.M., Luton, J.P., Clauser, E., Bertagna, X. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. The Ras effector RASSF2 is a novel tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer. Akino, K., Toyota, M., Suzuki, H., Mita, H., Sasaki, Y., Ohe-Toyota, M., Issa, J.P., Hinoda, Y., Imai, K., Tokino, T. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 levels in Min mouse adenomas. Williams, C.S., Luongo, C., Radhika, A., Zhang, T., Lamps, L.W., Nanney, L.B., Beauchamp, R.D., DuBois, R.N. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy computer-aided polyp detection in a screening population. Summers, R.M., Yao, J., Pickhardt, P.J., Franaszek, M., Bitter, I., Brickman, D., Krishna, V., Choi, J.R. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
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