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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Recognition of oxidized low density lipoprotein by the scavenger receptor of macrophages results from derivatization of apolipoprotein B by products of fatty acid peroxidation.

Uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins by macrophages in the arterial intima is believed to be an important step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. There are a number of possible mechanisms by which macrophages might accumulate cholesterol, and one that has attracted much interest recently involves the uptake of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) via a specific cell surface receptor, termed the scavenger or acetyl-LDL receptor. Previous studies have shown that chemical derivatization of LDL with reagents that result in neutralization of the charge of lysine amino groups also allows recognition by this receptor. As well, it has been shown that oxidation of LDL is accompanied by a decrease in free lysine groups and binding of lipid products to apolipoprotein B. The present studies were done to further characterize the receptor-binding domain on oxidized LDL. It was found that LDL could be modified by incubation with water-soluble products derived from autoxidized unsaturated fatty acids under conditions that inhibited oxidation of the LDL itself. The LDL modified in this way had increased electrophoretic mobility but showed no evidence of the oxidative damage that typifies LDL oxidized by exposure to metal ions. Furthermore, the oxidation product-modified LDL was rapidly degraded by cultured macrophages through the scavenger receptor pathway. Bovine albumin modified by oxidation products also showed greatly accelerated degradation by macrophages. When analyzed by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, the reactive oxidation products appeared less polar than fatty acids or simple medium-chain aldehydes. When treated with the carbonyl reagent 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, the reactive fractions yielded derivatives, some of which were identified by mass spectrometry as hydrazones of nonenal, heptenal, pentenal, and crotonaldehyde. A series of 2-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein to 2-nonenal) were all found to modify LDL, but none of these aldehyde-modified LDLs were recognized by the scavenger receptor of macrophages and all were degraded much more slowly by these cells than LDL modified with oxidation products. Furthermore, copper-oxidized LDL had only very slight immunoreactivity toward a panel of antibodies specific for adducts of simple 2-unsaturated aldehydes. Analysis of underivatized autoxidized fatty acids by coupled liquid chromatography/thermospray mass spectrometry revealed compounds with m/z corresponding to M+17, M+31, and 2M+31 in fractions that were capable of modifying LDL. The unoxidized fatty acids showed a dominant peak at M-1. These results indicate that the scavenger receptor of macrophages can recogn[1]


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