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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interactions of target-sensitive immunoliposomes with herpes simplex virus. The foundation of a sensitive immunoliposome assay for the virus.

Interactions between target-sensitive (TS) immunoliposomes and herpes simplex virus (HSV) were investigated. Target sensitivity of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) immunoliposomes is a result of the ability of acylated monoclonal anti-HSV glycoprotein D (gD) to stabilize the bilayer phase of PE, whereas by itself, PE does not form stable liposomes (Ho, R. J. Y., Rouse, B. T., and Huang, L. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 5500-5506). Upon binding of these immunoliposomes to HSV antigen-containing gD, destabilization of PE immunoliposomes was observed. By encapsulating either a self-quenching fluorescent dye, calcein, or alkaline phosphatase inside the liposomal compartment, the HSV-induced destabilization of TS immunoliposomes was shown to be target-specific. Neither Sendai, Semliki Forest, nor Sindbis virus could significantly destabilize the TS immunoliposomes. Moreover, HSV-induced liposome destabilization could be inhibited by free anti-gD (the same antibody used in TS immunoliposomes) but not by monoclonal anti-HSV glycoprotein B, indicating that the interaction was antigen-specific. Destabilization could also be induced by binding to truncated gD (tgD), but only when in a multivalent form immobilized on latex beads. Truncated gD is a cloned, 312-amino acid fragment of HSV-gD that lacks the transmembrane segment. Preincubation of soluble tgD with the TS immunoliposomes failed to induce destabilization and, in addition, abolished the tgD-bead-induced destabilization. This finding strongly indicated that multivalent binding is essential for TS immunoliposome destabilization. Using alkaline phosphatase encapsulated in the liposomes, TS immunoliposomes could be used to detect HSV in fluid phase with 50% signal recorded at 5 microliters of 3.2 x 10(3) pfu/ml; at least 10-fold more sensitive than the standard double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The interactions described here may be useful in designing a homogeneous and sensitive immunoliposome assay.[1]


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