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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional mapping of the human papillomavirus type 11 transcriptional enhancer and its interaction with the trans-acting E2 proteins.

The transcriptional enhancer sequences of the papillomaviruses are regulated by trans-acting factors encoded by the viral E2 open reading frame. We have performed detailed functional and physical analyses of the enhancer of the human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11). Using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay in transiently transfected monkey CV-1 cells, the enhancer region has been localized to a 270-bp tract immediately preceding the E6 open reading frame, and it consists of two functional components. The first is a constitutive enhancer containing sequences homologous to the GT-, Sph-, and P-motifs found in the SV40 and polyomavirus enhancers; others resemble the recognition sequence for CTF (NF-1), a factor which stimulates transcription of certain eukaryotic genes and replication of adenovirus DNA. The second component is an inducible enhancer with a consensus sequence ACCN6GGT responsive to the E2 protein encoded by papillomaviruses. Tandem copies of portions of the constitutive enhancer function as an E2-independent enhancer, whereas multiple copies of HPV-11 DNA restriction fragments or synthetic oligonucleotides containing the E2-responsive sequence (E2-RS) act as an enhancer in the presence of the E2 protein encoded by HPV-1, HPV-11, or bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1). The inducible activity is lost when mutations are introduced into the E2-RS or when a mutant palindromic sequence is substituted. We have also expressed the E2 proteins of HPV-1, HPV-11, and BPV-1 in Escherichia coli and studied their physical interactions with the E2-responsive sequence in vitro. Filter-binding analyses with crude Escherichia coli lysates show that the E2 proteins bind to the E2-RS, but not to mutated motifs, with an affinity proportional to the copy number. These E2 proteins have been purified to near-homogeneity by sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography using the synthetic E2-RS as a ligand. The purified proteins protect a DNA segment containing the E2-RS and several flanking nucleotides in pancreatic DNase I footprinting analyses. Based on these results, we conclude that E2 proteins activate the enhancer by binding directly to the E2-RS and interacting with other transcriptional factors and that the sequence ACCN6GGT is both necessary and sufficient for the E2 protein binding in vitro and for activation of RNA transcription in vivo.[1]


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