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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Human papillomavirus 11

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Disease relevance of Human papillomavirus 11

  • We examined the functions of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) E1 and E2 proteins purified from Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses in cell-free HPV-11 origin (ori) replication [1].
  • This study investigated the human c-fos promoter characteristics by mapping the c-fos promoter sequence with several deletion and point mutants that confer responsiveness to E5 of HPV-11 or HPV-16 [2].
  • The human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) L1 major capsid protein can be trypsinized to generate recombinant capsomeres that retain HPV genotype-restricted capsid antigenicity (M. Li, T. P. Cripe, P. A. Estes, M. K. Lyon, R. C. Rose, and R. L. Garcea, J. Virol. 71:2988-2995, 1997) [3].
  • The trypsin susceptibility of HPV-11 L1 capsids suggests a possible mechanism for virion disassembly [4].
  • The carboxy terminus of L1 therefore constitutes the interpentamer linker arm responsible for HPV-11 capsid formation, much like the carboxy-terminal domain of the polyomavirus VP1 protein [4].

High impact information on Human papillomavirus 11

  • Tandem copies of portions of the constitutive enhancer function as an E2-independent enhancer, whereas multiple copies of HPV-11 DNA restriction fragments or synthetic oligonucleotides containing the E2-responsive sequence (E2-RS) act as an enhancer in the presence of the E2 protein encoded by HPV-1, HPV-11, or bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) [5].
  • Exogenously added p180 inhibits both E2-dependent and E2-independent cell-free replication of HPV-11, whereas p70 inhibits E2-dependent but stimulates E2-independent replication [6].
  • By using a variety of physical assays, we show that both 180- (p180) and 70-kDa (p70) subunits of pol alpha/primase interact with HPV-11 E1 [6].
  • In addition, KSF may interact with related or identical cis-regulatory elements found in human papillomavirus-11 E6 and cytokeratin K3 promoters that are active in keratinocytes [7].
  • Finally, the HPV-11 E2C protein lacking the transacting domain of the full-length E2 protein partially inhibits E2-dependent ori replication [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Human papillomavirus 11

  • Polystyrene sulfonate prevented subsequent infection of HPV-11 after virus-cell binding, and this inactivation was observed up to 4 h after addition of virus [8].
  • High-titer cesium chloride gradient-purified HPV 11 virions infected 100% of recovered xenografts [9].
  • Moreover, viral enhancer assays indicated that the observed stimulatory effect of pregnancy on condylomata and of estradiol on experimental cysts is likely an indirect one and could not be attributed to up-regulation of the HPV-11 transcriptional enhancer [10].
  • HPV- 11 replication is significantly inhibited by BrdU and sodium butyrate; however 5-FU and alpha-IFN did not give consistent dose response results [11].
  • In immunocompromised mice, papilloma cysts formed in HPV-11 infected laryngeal tissue implanted under the renal capsules in 100% of control mice but only in 25% of mice fed indole-3-carbinol [12].

Biological context of Human papillomavirus 11

  • The HPV-11 E2 protein appears not to be essential for elongation, but it must be present in the preinitiation complex for the E1 protein to recruit host DNA replication machinery to the ori [1].
  • For HPV-11, only RNAs initiated at the P264 promoter, located within the E6 open reading frame, were capable of providing an efficient template for E7 synthesis [13].
  • Using an inducible system, we demonstrate that increased induction of the HPV-11 E5 gene in cells led to increased transactivation of the NF1 element [2].
  • However, the HPV-11 E2 protein did not associate with Brd4 during mitosis [14].
  • However, inhibition did not appear to be mediated by binding to its cognate site in the ori as YY1 also inhibited the replication of the HPV-11 ori, which does not have a known or suspected YY1 binding site [15].

Anatomical context of Human papillomavirus 11


Gene context of Human papillomavirus 11

  • On the other hand, low-risk HPV 11 E6 does not interact with E6AP even at relatively high concentrations [20].
  • In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation [21].
  • Our data are consistent with phosphorylation of HPV 11 E1(wedge)E4 protein by MAPK and PKA in infected tissue [22].
  • The authors' data indicated that the p53 genetic mutation was associated with integration of HPV-11 in histologically malignant lesions [23].
  • These differences could be explained in part by the inability of HPV-11 E7 to inhibit the induction of an IFN-responsive element, whereas HPV-6 E7 almost completely inhibited the activity of this promoter in transient transfection experiments [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Human papillomavirus 11

  • Immuno-dot blot assays using human sera obtained from individuals with biopsy-proven condyloma acuminatum correlated closely with results previously obtained in HPV-11 whole virus particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [25].
  • Both proteins were detected on Western blots as immunoreactive bands which migrated with apparent Mrs of 76K and 78K, respectively, and contained both cross-reactive and type-specific epitopes, as determined by polyclonal antisera directed against defined subregions of the HPV-6b and HPV-11 L2 ORFs [26].
  • Electron microscopy determined that the HPV-11 L1 VLPs were variable in size with a surface topography similar to that of infectious HPV-11 [27].
  • All three fungiform papillomas were positive by all three techniques: immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for HPV 6/11, and the polymerase chain reaction for HPV 11 [28].
  • The affinity purified HPV 11 anti-E4 antibodies identified putative E4 gene products in one of these same six lesions, which was shown to contain HPV 11 sequences by the Southern blot method [29].


  1. The functions of human papillomavirus type 11 E1, E2, and E2C proteins in cell-free DNA replication. Liu, J.S., Kuo, S.R., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. E5 proteins of human papillomavirus types 11 and 16 transactivate the c-fos promoter through the NF1 binding element. Chen, S.L., Lin, Y.K., Li, L.Y., Tsao, Y.P., Lo, H.Y., Wang, W.B., Tsai, T.C. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant L1 capsomeres induce virus-neutralizing antibodies. Rose, R.C., White, W.I., Li, M., Suzich, J.A., Lane, C., Garcea, R.L. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 11 L1 capsid protein in Escherichia coli: characterization of protein domains involved in DNA binding and capsid assembly. Li, M., Cripe, T.P., Estes, P.A., Lyon, M.K., Rose, R.C., Garcea, R.L. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional mapping of the human papillomavirus type 11 transcriptional enhancer and its interaction with the trans-acting E2 proteins. Hirochika, H., Hirochika, R., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Human papillomavirus DNA replication. Interactions between the viral E1 protein and two subunits of human dna polymerase alpha/primase. Conger, K.L., Liu, J.S., Kuo, S.R., Chow, L.T., Wang, T.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A CACCC box-like cis-regulatory element of the Epstein-Barr virus ED-L2 promoter interacts with a novel transcriptional factor in tissue-specific squamous epithelia. Nakagawa, H., Inomoto, T., Rustgi, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Papillomavirus microbicidal activities of high-molecular-weight cellulose sulfate, dextran sulfate, and polystyrene sulfonate. Christensen, N.D., Reed, C.A., Culp, T.D., Hermonat, P.L., Howett, M.K., Anderson, R.A., Zaneveld, L.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Transmission of human papillomavirus type 11 infection by desquamated cornified cells. Bryan, J.T., Brown, D.R. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of an HPV type 11 isolate propagated in human foreskin implants in nude mice. Dollard, S.C., Chow, L.T., Kreider, J.W., Broker, T.R., Lill, N.L., Howett, M.K. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel drug screening assay for papillomavirus specific antiviral activity. Clark, P.R., Roberts, M.L., Cowsert, L.M. Antiviral Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Estrogen metabolism and human papillomavirus-induced tumors of the larynx: chemo-prophylaxis with indole-3-carbinol. Newfield, L., Goldsmith, A., Bradlow, H.L., Auborn, K. Anticancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Translation of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein from bicistronic mRNA is independent of splicing events within the E6 open reading frame. Stacey, S.N., Jordan, D., Snijders, P.J., Mackett, M., Walboomers, J.M., Arrand, J.R. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Dynamic Localization of the Human Papillomavirus Type 11 Origin Binding Protein E2 through Mitosis While in Association with the Spindle Apparatus. Dao, L.D., Duffy, A., Van Tine, B.A., Wu, S.Y., Chiang, C.M., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Transcription factor YY1 represses cell-free replication from human papillomavirus origins. Lee, K.Y., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Human papillomavirus type 11 E2 proteins repress the homologous E6 promoter by interfering with the binding of host transcription factors to adjacent elements. Dong, G., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Control of human papillomavirus type 11 origin of replication by the E2 family of transcription regulatory proteins. Chiang, C.M., Dong, G., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Temporal and histologic relationships of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and human papillomavirus type 11 in the mouse xenograft system. Brown, D.R., Pratt, L., Fife, K.H., Bryan, J.T. J. Med. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to c-jun inhibits proliferation of transformed NIH 3T3 cells induced by E5a of HPV-11. Chen, S.L., Tsao, L.T., Tsao, Y.P. Cancer Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Kinetic analysis of the interactions of human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins with the ubiquitin ligase E6AP using surface plasmon resonance. Zanier, K., Charbonnier, S., Baltzinger, M., Nominé, Y., Altschuh, D., Travé, G. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein. Kieback, E., Müller, M. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The human papillomavirus type 11 E1E4 protein is phosphorylated in genital epithelium. Bryan, J.T., Han, A., Fife, K.H., Brown, D.R. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Malignant transformation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis associated with integrated human papillomavirus type 11 DNA and mutation of p53. Rady, P.L., Schnadig, V.J., Weiss, R.L., Hughes, T.K., Tyring, S.K. Laryngoscope (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular analysis of resistance to interferon in patients with laryngeal papillomatosis. Garciá-Millián, R., Santos, A., Perea, S.E., González-Cabañas, R., Valenzuela, C., Araña, M. Cytokines Cell. Mol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of human papillomavirus type 11 L1 protein in insect cells: in vivo and in vitro assembly of viruslike particles. Rose, R.C., Bonnez, W., Reichman, R.C., Garcea, R.L. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of the full-length products of the human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) and HPV-11 L2 open reading frames by recombinant baculovirus, and antigenic comparisons with HPV-11 whole virus particles. Rose, R.C., Bonnez, W., Strike, D.G., Reichman, R.C. J. Gen. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Assembled baculovirus-expressed human papillomavirus type 11 L1 capsid protein virus-like particles are recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and induce high titres of neutralizing antibodies. Christensen, N.D., Höpfl, R., DiAngelo, S.L., Cladel, N.M., Patrick, S.D., Welsh, P.A., Budgeon, L.R., Reed, C.A., Kreider, J.W. J. Gen. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Sinonasal papillomas and human papillomavirus: human papillomavirus 11 detected in fungiform Schneiderian papillomas by in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. Judd, R., Zaki, S.R., Coffield, L.M., Evatt, B.L. Hum. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 E4 gene products in condylomata acuminatum. Brown, D.R., Bryan, J., Rodriguez, M., Rose, R.C., Strike, D.G. J. Med. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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