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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Stimulation of the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) via cytidylyltransferase activation in cells with minimal endogenous PAF production.

Treatment of Ehrlich ascites cells with 2 mM oleic acid causes a greater than 10-fold increase in the formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-[3H]alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) from the de novo precursor of PAF, 1-[3H]alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol. Under these conditions, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activity, which is known to catalyze the rate-limiting step in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, was stimulated 32% (p less than 0.001) over control cells. Surprisingly, the dithiothreitol-insensitive choline-phosphotransferase activity, which catalyzes the final step in PAF biosynthesis, was reduced approximately 95% in membranes isolated from cells that were pre-treated with 2 mM oleic acid. However, calculations of product formation at this reduced cholinephosphotransferase activity revealed that it was still sufficient to accommodate the increased synthesis of PAF observed in the intact oleic acid-treated cells. Kinetic studies and experiments done with cells treated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (an acetylhydrolase inhibitor) indicate the various metabolic products formed are derived through the following sequence of reactions: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol----1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine----1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine----1-alkyl- 2(long-chain) acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. These results indicate PAF is the source of alkylacylglycerophosphocholine through the action of an acetylhydrolase and a transacylase as shown in other cell systems. The relative amounts of PAF, lyso-PAF, and alkylacylglycerophosphocholine produced after treatment of the cells with oleic acid in the absence of the phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibitor indicate that the acylation rate for lyso-PAF is considerably slower (i.e. rate-limiting) than the deacetylation of PAF by acetylhydrolase. We further conclude that the final step in the de novo pathway for PAF biosynthesis is under the direct control of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, which emphasizes the importance of this regulatory (rate-limiting) step in the biosynthesis of both phosphatidylcholine and PAF.[1]


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