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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis: CT findings.

Sixteen patients with peripheral cholangiocarcinoma of the liver were examined with computed tomography (CT). None of the 16 patients presented with jaundice or had documented cirrhosis. On scans obtained both before and after the injection of contrast material, the tumors were depicted as low-attenuation masses in all cases, with wide variations in homogeneity. The tumor margin was irregular in 12 cases, and there was minimal contrast enhancement of the tumor in 14 cases. In 11 (69%) patients, CT demonstrated masses of markedly low attenuation, which corresponded to areas of diffuse microcystic change seen at histologic examination of resected specimens. In ten (63%) patients, the results of stool or intradermal tests for Clonorchis sinensis were positive. In all ten cases of clonorchiasis, mild, diffuse dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts was seen in addition to the low-attenuation masses, but there was no dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary tree. In five of the ten patients with clonorchiasis, stippled or aggregated, powderlike areas of high attenuation were seen on precontrast CT scans; at pathologic examination, those areas were found to be mucin. Extrahepatic metastases were demonstrated in ten (63%) patients. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma should be the primary diagnostic consideration when these characteristic CT findings are detected in a noncirrhotic patient.[1]


  1. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis: CT findings. Choi, B.I., Park, J.H., Kim, Y.I., Yu, E.S., Kim, S.H., Kim, W.H., Kim, C.Y., Han, M.C. Radiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
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