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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Negative co-operativity in glutamate dehydrogenase. Involvement of the 2-position in glutamate in the induction of conformational changes.

The 2-position substituent on substrates or substrate analogues for glutamate dehydrogenase is shown to be intimately involved in the induction of conformational changes between subunits in the hexamer by coenzyme. These conformational changes are associated with the negative co-operativity exhibited by this enzyme. 2-Oxoglutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate induce indications of co-operativity similar to those induced by the substrate of oxidative deamination, glutamate, in kinetic studies. Glutarate (2-position CH2) does not. A comparison of the effects of L-2-hydroxyglutarate and D-2-hydroxyglutarate or D-glutamate indicates that the 2-position substituent must be in the L-configuration for these conformational changes to be triggered. In addition, glutarate and L-glutamate in ternary enzyme-NAD(P)H-substrate complexes induce very different coenzyme fluorescence properties, showing that glutamate induces a different conformation of the enzyme-coenzyme complex from that induced by glutarate. Although glutamate and glutarate both tighten the binding of reduced coenzyme to the active site, the effect is much greater with glutamate, and the binding is described by two dissociation constants when glutamate is present. The data suggest that the two carboxy groups on the substrate are required to allow synergistic binding of coenzyme and substrate to the active site, but that interactions between the 2-position on the substrate and the enzyme trigger the conformational changes that result in subunit-subunit interactions and in the catalytic co-operativity exhibited by this enzyme.[1]


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