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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as a solitary metastasis to the scapula. Case report and review of the literature.

Although primary hepatocellular carcinoma is uncommon, metastasis to the upper extremity as a presenting symptom is even more rare. Recent case reports and autopsy surveys document that extrahepatic spread of this carcinoma occurs in 30% to 78% of patients, who usually are without regional symptoms involving bone. Although metastatic spread to the lungs and lymph nodes occurs more commonly, the incidence of bone metastases has increased according to previous reports and is now estimated from 2% to 13%. This case report concerns widely disseminated hepatocellular carcinoma presenting initially without any other systemic signs except for shoulder pain and induration. Due to the aggressive nature of this tumor, early detection is crucial. Early diagnosis may offer the only real hope for establishing effective treatment and improving the chances for long-term survival.[1]


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