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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Scapula


High impact information on Scapula

  • In addition, loss of beta-catenin results in a severe agenesis of the scapula [5].
  • Such dysmorphogenesis is preceded by ectopic Pax3 expression in the hypaxial part of the dermomyotome, a region from which the blade of the scapula normally derives [6].
  • Here we addressed the development of the scapula, firstly, by analysing the relationship between Pax1 expression and chondrogenesis and, secondly, by determining the developmental origin of the scapula using chick quail chimeric analysis [7].
  • The role of Emx2 during scapula formation [8].
  • Furthermore, we show that the formation of the scapula head is dependent, scapula blade formation independent of FGFR-1-mediated signaling [8].

Biological context of Scapula


Anatomical context of Scapula


Associations of Scapula with chemical compounds

  • Pretreatment with probenecid achieved maximum concentrations of 1.7 and 2.8 micrograms/g in the humerus and scapula, respectively [13].
  • Inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase; EC was purified from pig scapula cartilage by fractionation with N-cetylpyridinium chloride and (NH4)2SO4, followed by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography [14].
  • In addition, pain in the suprascapular region was referred from C4/5, C5/6, and C4, that in the superior angle of the scapula from C6/7, C6, and C7, and that in the mid-scapular region from C7/Th1 and C7 [15].
  • Azlocillin (AZL) and cefonicid (CFD) penetration into rabbit humerus and scapula was evaluated with and without concomitantly administered probenecid [13].
  • The strength of active external rotation and of abduction of the shoulder when the humerus was in the plane of the scapula (30 degrees of horizontal flexion anterior to the coronal plane) was measured isokinetically and isometrically in thirty-nine normal volunteers, who were stratified by age and sex [16].

Gene context of Scapula


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Scapula

  • The dog underwent multiple operations involving internal fixation of the fractured scapula with wire and a plate, followed by extensive chemotherapy with antibiotics and prednisolone [21].
  • The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology Part III: The SICK scapula, scapular dyskinesis, the kinetic chain, and rehabilitation [22].


  1. Localized conjunctival amyloidosis associated with extranodal lymphoma. Marsh, W.M., Streeten, B.W., Hoepner, J.A., Zhang, W., Davey, F.R. Ophthalmology (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as a solitary metastasis to the scapula. Case report and review of the literature. Zeller, J.L., Ireland, M.L. Orthopedics. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Seventeen-year follow-up of massive osteolysis of the scapula. Mochizuki, K., Koyama, S., Ishii, Y. Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. S-100 protein expression in a case of elastofibroma dorsi. Magro, G., Giannone, G., Carrubba, G., Belfiore, G., Grasso, S. Pathologica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Multiple roles of mesenchymal beta-catenin during murine limb patterning. Hill, T.P., Taketo, M.M., Birchmeier, W., Hartmann, C. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Carboxypeptidase Z (CPZ) modulates Wnt signaling and regulates the development of skeletal elements in the chicken. Moeller, C., Swindell, E.C., Kispert, A., Eichele, G. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Dual origin and segmental organisation of the avian scapula. Huang, R., Zhi, Q., Patel, K., Wilting, J., Christ, B. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The role of Emx2 during scapula formation. Pröls, F., Ehehalt, F., Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M., He, L., Huang, R., Christ, B. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Osteonectin and Gla-protein in calf bone: ultrastructural immunohistochemical localization using the Protein A-gold method. Bianco, P., Hayashi, Y., Silvestrini, G., Termine, J.D., Bonucci, E. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. The relative contribution of cysteine proteinases and matrix metalloproteinases to the resorption process in osteoclasts derived from long bone and scapula. Shorey, S., Heersche, J.N., Manolson, M.F. Bone (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Shoulder complex position and glenohumeral subluxation in hemiplegia. Culham, E.G., Noce, R.R., Bagg, S.D. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Scapular and clavicular kinematics during humeral elevation: a study with cadavers. Fung, M., Kato, S., Barrance, P.J., Elias, J.J., McFarland, E.G., Nobuhara, K., Chao, E.Y. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Azlocillin and cefonicid penetration into bone enhanced by probenecid. Summersgill, J.T., Harrod, L.G., Raff, M.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification and heterogeneity of inorganic pyrophosphatase of pig scapula cartilage. Felix, R., Fleisch, H. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Referred pain distribution of the cervical zygapophyseal joints and cervical dorsal rami. Fukui, S., Ohseto, K., Shiotani, M., Ohno, K., Karasawa, H., Naganuma, Y., Yuda, Y. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Isokinetic and isometric measurement of strength of external rotation and abduction of the shoulder. Kuhlman, J.R., Iannotti, J.P., Kelly, M.J., Riegler, F.X., Gevaert, M.L., Ergin, T.M. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Agenesis of the scapula in Emx2 homozygous mutants. Pellegrini, M., Pantano, S., Fumi, M.P., Lucchini, F., Forabosco, A. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Properties of inorganic pyrophosphatase of pig scapula cartilage. Felix, R., Fleisch, H. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Long thoracic nerve injury. Wiater, J.M., Flatow, E.L. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Acquired winged scapula in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Delmonte, S., Massone, C., Parodi, A., Rebora, A. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. A case report of Cheyletiella infestation on a Whippet dog in Korea. Shin, S.S. Korean J. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology Part III: The SICK scapula, scapular dyskinesis, the kinetic chain, and rehabilitation. Burkhart, S.S., Morgan, C.D., Kibler, W.B. Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
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