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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cellular signal transduction and the reversal of malignancy.

Animal cells contain only a few defined molecular systems that transduce hormonal and growth signals from the external environment to the intracellular milieu to regulate cellular growth and differentiation. Among the most ubiquitous of these "second messenger" pathways are those utilizing cyclic AMP and phosphatidylinositide turnover. The former activates protein kinase A, while the latter leads to the activation of protein kinase C and mobilization of intracellular calcium. Lesions induced by oncogenes in signal transduction systems may be responsible for the cancerous transformation of cells. In many tumor cell lines, including some transformed by the ras and sis oncogenes, activation of protein kinase A by elevation of cyclic AMP or activation of protein kinase C by addition of phorbol esters can restore many normal aspects of growth and morphology. Such "reverse transformation" is accompanied by the phosphorylation of unique cellular proteins and alterations in the phosphoinositide cycle. Molecular mechanisms by which activation of signal transduction systems can attenuate the malignant phenotype are considered in the context of cellular growth and differentiation.[1]


  1. Cellular signal transduction and the reversal of malignancy. Lockwood, A.H., Murphy, S.K., Borislow, S., Lazarus, A., Pendergast, M. J. Cell. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
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