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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

An extracellular role for calmodulin-like activity in cell proliferation.

1. Addition of extracellular pure pig brain calmodulin was found to modulate DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in K562 human leukaemic lymphocytes. At lower cell densities calmodulin significantly stimulated [3H]thymidine uptake; at higher densities it decreased it. 2. A protein biochemically indistinguishable from calmodulin was detected in the cell-conditioned media of rapidly dividing K562 cells. The concentration of calmodulin-like activity found in the conditioned media of these and a range of other normal and neoplastic cells (250-1636 ng/ml) was of the same order as would stimulate DNA synthesis in subconfluent cells. 3. Amounts of extracellular calmodulin-like activity and immunoreactivity varied during cell growth from low to high density, a peak of extracellular calmodulin preceding DNA synthesis in synchronized K562 cells. Extracellular calmodulin concentrations did not correlate with the presence of lactate dehydrogenase in the medium. 4. Inhibition of extracellular calmodulin activity by calmodulin antagonist immobilized on agarose beads, or by antibody to calmodulin, significantly decreased DNA synthesis. 5. These data strongly suggest that calmodulin or a very closely related protein can influence mitosis through an extracellular mechanism.[1]


  1. An extracellular role for calmodulin-like activity in cell proliferation. Crocker, G., Dawson, R.A., Barton, C.H., MacNeil, S. Biochem. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
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