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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of H-ras oncogene in rat bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine.

Ras-oncogene activation was investigated in the bladder tumors of F344 male rats given N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water. DNA from one of the nine transitional cell carcinomas contained an H-ras oncogene detectable by the NIH/3T3 transfection assay. Analysis of p21 ras proteins suggested that the activating mutation resided within codon 61 of the H-ras gene and that such activating mutations were not present in other tumors. In contrast to mutational activation of ras genes, enhanced expression of p21 was observed in all tumors examined by immunohistochemical techniques with the use of Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections and an anti-ras p21 antibody, RAP-5. Further histochemical analysis of bladder tissues at various stages of the BBN-induced carcinogenic process indicated that the enhanced expression of p21 appeared early; the reactivity with RAP-5 was observed in diffuse hyperplastic epithelia after 5 weeks of exposure to BBN. The frequency of ras oncogenes, activated either by point mutations or overexpression of p21, in BBN-induced rat bladder carcinomas has thus been shown to be similar to that observed in human bladder carcinomas.[1]


  1. Activation of H-ras oncogene in rat bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Fujita, J., Ohuchi, N., Ito, N., Reynolds, S.H., Yoshida, O., Nakayama, H., Kitamura, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
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