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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ultrastructure of equine endothelial cells exposed to endotoxin and flunixin meglumine and equine neutrophils.

An in vitro system of cultured equine endothelial cells was evaluated as a model for endotoxin (ET) exposure in the horse. Primary cell lines from pulmonary vessels and aortas were cultured from tissues of 6 horses. Effects of ET alone with and without serum and in combination with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flunixin meglumine and isolated equine neutrophils were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Cells plus serum were incubated with 10, 25, 50, or 100 micrograms of ET/ml of incubation medium for 1, 3, 8, or 24 hours. Cells without serum were cultured for 1 and 3 hours. Flunixin meglumine was used at a concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. Cells also were incubated in the presence of 1,000, 5,000, or 20,000 neutrophils/ml plus ET and in the presence of a combination of ET and flunixin meglumine for 1 or 3 hours. Endotoxin alone did not cause cell damage, and the only evidence of an effect was an increased number of secondary lysosomes at incubation hour 8. At incubation hour 24, cells appeared normal. Endotoxin plus neutrophils caused cells to become round and detach from the growth substrate. Cell pathologic changes included swollen and distorted mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Response to the ET plus neutrophil combination was variable and ranged from 5% to 50% of the cells being affected. The variability appeared to have some correlation with cell age, as well as individual preparation of neutrophils.[1]


  1. Ultrastructure of equine endothelial cells exposed to endotoxin and flunixin meglumine and equine neutrophils. Turek, J.J., Lamar, C.H., Fessler, J.F., Bottoms, G.D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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