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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enhanced ability of skeletal muscle containing cyclocreatine phosphate to sustain ATP levels during ischemia following beta-adrenergic stimulation.

Breast muscle of young chicks fed chow diets containing the creatine analog 1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine (cyclocreatine) accumulated up to 40 mumol/g wet weight of the synthetic phosphagen 1-carboxymethyl-2-imino-3-phosphonoimidazolidine (cyclocreatine-P2-). ATP levels were sustained at high values substantially longer in breast muscle of cyclocreatine-fed chicks, compared to control-fed chicks, during total ischemia initiated 2 h after injection of both groups with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (5 mg/kg subcutaneous). For example, in chicks fed 0.5% cyclocreatine for 10-19 days ATP levels in isoproterenol-stimulated breast muscles after 1 h of ischemia at 37 degrees C were 6.1 mumol/g, compared to 1.9 mumol/g for the control-fed group, and after 2 h of ischemia were 3.5 mumol/g compared to 0.6 mumol/g for controls. Creatine-P reserves in isoproterenol-stimulated breast muscles of all dietary groups were essentially exhausted within the first hour of ischemia. In contrast, breast muscle of chicks fed either 1 or 0.5% cyclocreatine still contained 28 and 19 mumol/g of cyclocreatine-P, respectively, after 1 h of ischemia; after 2 h of ischemia, the respective cyclocreatine-P values were 20 and 13 mumol/g. Isoproterenol-stimulated chick breast muscle provides the first skeletal muscle model system for studying the molecular mechanisms by which dietary cyclocreatine helps sustain ATP levels during ischemia. Although adaptive factors are also involved, it is suggested that a significant portion of the ATP-sustaining activity of dietary cyclocreatine in ischemic breast muscle can be attributed to the unique thermodynamic properties of the accumulated cyclocreatine-P. These properties enable cyclocreatine-P to continue to thermodynamically buffer the adenylate system and transport high energy phosphate throughout the long muscle fibers at cytosolic pH values and phosphorylation potentials well below the range where the creatine-P system can function effectively. Synergism between glycolysis and this long-acting synthetic phosphagen might well help delay depletion of ATP levels in skeletal muscles during ischemia. Cyclocreatine feeding provides a unique experimental tool for quantitative evaluation of the proposed protective role of ATP against irreversible cellular damage in skeletal and cardiac muscles during ischemic episodes.[1]


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