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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tumor promoters induce changes in the chick embryo fibroblast cytoskeleton.

We have examined the effect of the tumor promoter, 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on the actin-containing elements of the cytoskeleton of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF). TPA at concentrations as low as 7.3 times 10-10M indices a reversible change in the cytoskeleton as visualized by indirect immunofluorescence using anti-actin antibodies. Cells incubated with TPA lose the ordered actin-containing structures found in normal cells and resemble Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells in that the immunofluorescent actin pattern is diffuse. The TPA effects are both dose-and time-dependent. Analogs of TPA which are inactive as tumor promoters do not induce cytoskeletal changes at the concentrations tested, while a second tumor promoter, PDD, is also able to cause alterations in actin-containing structures. The action of TPA requires de novo synthesis of both RNA and protein. The direct cytoskeletal changes are neither plasmin-dependent nor subject to inhibition by incubating the cells with high levels of protease inhibitors during the exposure to TPA. However, plasminogen does increase the sensitivity of cells to TPA.[1]


  1. Tumor promoters induce changes in the chick embryo fibroblast cytoskeleton. Rifkin, D.B., Crowe, R.M., Pollack, R. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
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