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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thermodynamics, kinetics, and mechanism in yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase catalysis of inorganic pyrophosphate: inorganic phosphate equilibration.

We have developed two methods for quantitatively measuring inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the presence of 10(3)--10(4) molar excesses of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and used them to measure the extent of enzyme-bound pyrophosphate (EPPi) formation in solutions of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase and Pi. We have also measured the rate of enzyme-catalyzed H2O--phosphate oxygen exchange. We find both processes to have essentially identical dependence on Mg2+ and Pi concentrations, thus providing important confirmation for the recent proposal by Janson et al. (1979) that oxygen exchange proceeds via EPPi formation. Our results are consistent with a model in which three Mg2+ per active site are required for EPPi formation but inconsistent with a model requiring only two Mg2+ per active site and permit the formulation of an overall scheme for inorganic pyrophosphatase catalysis of PPi--Pi equilibration as well as the evaluation of equilibrium and rate constants in this scheme. The major results and conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the equilibrium constant for PPi (enzyme-bound) in equilibrium with 2Pi (enzyme-bound) is 4.8; (b) following PPi hydrolysis, the first released Pi contains an oxygen from solvent water; (c) the steps for PPi hydrolysis on the enzyme and for release of both product Pi's are all partially rate determining in overall enzyme-catalyzed PPi hydrolysis; (d) PPi formation on the enzyme is rate determining for H2O--Pi oxygen exchange; (e) PPi dissociation from the enzyme is very slow and is the rate-determining step in Pi--PPi exchange (Cohn, 1958; Janson et al., 1979). This also accounts for the observation that the calculated dissociation constant for MgPPi complex binding to enzyme is considerably lower than the measured Km for enzyme-catalyzed MgPPi hydrolysis.[1]


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