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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

4-aminoquinoline-induced 'giant' miniature endplate potentials at mammalian neuromuscular junctions.

4-Aminoquinoline (4-AQ) in concentrations around 200 micrometers induces, within minutes of its application to isolated mouse or rat neuromuscular junctions, the appearance of a population of miniature endplate potentials ( with a larger than normal amplitude, so-called giant ( With amplitudes 2-12 times the modal value of m.e.p.p. amplitude, the population of varied between 15 and 45% of the total population of There was no increase in the frequency of but a positive correlation between the frequency of and the total frequency of In many instances the rise time and decay time of were prolonged compared to normal. Elevated extracellular calcium concentrations increased the frequency of but had no effect on g.m.e.p.p. frequency. High extracellular potassium concentrations markedly increased m.e.p.p. frequency but failed to influence g.m.e.p.p. frequency. Similar observations were made with ethanol 0.1 M, ouabain 200 micrometers or black widow spider venom. Botulinum toxin type A markedly reduced total m.e.p.p. frequency but 4-AQ still induced Nerve stimulation failed to release quanta corresponding to the seemed to originate from quantal acetylcholine release from the nerve terminal since they were abolished by surgical denervation and by the addition of d-tubocurarine to the medium. Blockade of voltage-sensitive calcium or sodium channels by, respectively, manganese ions or tetrodotoxin failed to affect the appearance and the frequency of The electrophysiological findings and a statistical analysis of the characteristics of the indicate that they belong to two populations. One population is accelerated by the depolarization-release coupling mechanism responsible for evoked transmitter release and is characterized by an amplitude distribution and a process in time that indicate that they correspond to releases occurring at 'active zones' in the nerve terminal. The second population of is uninfluenced by nerve terminal depolarization and transmembrane calcium fluxes. This population apparently originates from sites dispersed in the nerve terminal membrane and outside the 'active zones'. 4-AQ increases the frequency of this second m.e.p.p. population without affecting the first population.[1]


  1. 4-aminoquinoline-induced 'giant' miniature endplate potentials at mammalian neuromuscular junctions. Molgó, J., Thesleff, S. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
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