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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tracheal relaxant and cardiostimulant actions of xanthines can be differentiated from diuretic and CNS-stimulant effects. Role of adenosine antagonism?

Theophylline (1, 3-dimethylxanthine) and enprofylline (3-propylxanthine) have been examined for effects in the rat. Enprofylline was 3.8 times as potent as theophylline as a tracheal relaxant in vitro, and 1.3 times as potent as theophylline to increase the rate of isolated perfused hearts. An oral dose (5 mg/kg) of enprofylline to rats was almost completely recovered in the urine as unchanged drug, showing that this xanthine is well absorbed and negligibly metabolised. Theophylline (10 and 30 mg/kg p.o.) significantly and dose-dependently increased locomotor activity in rats whereas the same doses of enprofylline were without effect on behaviour. Theophylline ( 5-20 mg/kg p.o.) produced significant and dose-dependent natriuretic and volume diuretic effect with little augmentation of potassium excretion. Enprofylline up to 10 mg/kg was without diuretic effects. At the large dose of 20 mg/kg enprofylline decreased sodium excretion and produced some volume diuresis. It is suggested that lack of diuretic and CNS-stimulant behavioural effects by enprofylline is due to its low ability to antagonise adenosine receptor stimulation. Pharmacodynamic differences between enprofylline and the potent adenosine antagonist theophylline may indicate a functional importance of endogenous adenosine.[1]


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