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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanism of mRNA capping by vaccinia virus guanylyltransferase: characterization of an enzyme--guanylate intermediate.

Vaccinia virus RNA guanylyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of GMP from GTP to the 5'-triphosphate or diphosphate terminus of RNA to generate the cap structure G(5')ppp(5')N-. The guanylylation reaction consists of a series of at least two partial reactions: (i) GTP + E in equilibrium E-pG + PPi, (ii) E-pG + (p)ppNpNpN- leads to GpppNpNpN- + E. Inthe first of these, GTP reacts with capping enzyme in the absence of an RNA acceptor to form a covalent enzyme-guanylate intermediate. The GMP is linked to the Mr 95,000 subunit of the capping enzyme via a phosphoamide bond, as judged by the acid-labile, alkali-stable nature of the bond and by the susceptibility of the linkage to cleavage by hydroxylamine at pH 4.75. The isolated enzyme-guanylate complex is able to transfer the guanylate moiety to triphosphate-terminated poly(A) to yield the 5' cap structure GpppA or to pyrophosphate to regenerate GTP. Both partial reactions of transguanylylation require a divalent cation.[1]


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