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MeSH Review

RNA Viruses

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Disease relevance of RNA Viruses

  • This interaction is dependent upon an arginine-rich subdomain, which is conserved not only among the N proteins but also in many RNA binding proteins from ribosomes and RNA virus capsids [1].
  • Mammalian (+)-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses have responded by reducing the number of cis-acting regulatory elements, a constraint that has led to the emergence of the polyprotein [2].
  • This genome organization implies that mature viral proteins are produced by posttranslational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor and has implications for flavivirus RNA replication and for the evolutionary relation of this virus family to other RNA viruses [3].
  • Twenty-seven patients with hepatitis C virus RNA were randomly assigned to receive either 0.8-1.0 g of ribavirin daily or 3 MU of interferon beta three times weekly or combination of the two for 24 weeks [4].
  • Replicating hepatitis delta virus RNA is edited in the nucleus by the small form of ADAR1 [5].

Psychiatry related information on RNA Viruses

  • Nine months after treatment, sustained normalization of aminotransferase levels, associated with sustained loss of serum hepatitis C virus RNA, was observed in 40% of the patients in the combination therapy group but in none of the patients treated with IFN-alpha alone (P < 0.05) [6].
  • Integral to the lifecycles of all RNA viruses is the formation of double-stranded RNA, which activates a spectrum of cellular defense mechanisms including the activation of PKR and the release of interferon [7].

High impact information on RNA Viruses


Chemical compound and disease context of RNA Viruses

  • Identification of a structural glycoprotein of an RNA virus as a ribonuclease [13].
  • Our results suggest that the specific editing of glutamate receptor subunit B mRNA could be performed in vivo by dsRAD without the aid of specificity factors, and support the hypothesis that dsRAD is responsible for hypermutations in certain RNA viruses [14].
  • Vaccinia virus RNA guanylyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of GMP from GTP to the 5'-triphosphate or diphosphate terminus of RNA to generate the cap structure G(5')ppp(5')N-. The guanylylation reaction consists of a series of at least two partial reactions: (i) GTP + E in equilibrium E-pG + PPi, (ii) E-pG + (p)ppNpNpN- leads to GpppNpNpN- + E [15].
  • Various DNA and RNA virus species are inhibited by xanthate compounds at concentrations that leave the mitotic activity of uninfected cells unimpaired [16].
  • The net rate of spontaneous aggregation of cells suspended with EDTA was measured for various cell types including spontaneous transformants and cells transformed with DNA and RNA viruses [17].

Biological context of RNA Viruses


Anatomical context of RNA Viruses


Gene context of RNA Viruses


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RNA Viruses


  1. Sequence-specific recognition of RNA hairpins by bacteriophage antiterminators requires a conserved arginine-rich motif. Lazinski, D., Grzadzielska, E., Das, A. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Cardioviral internal ribosomal entry site is functional in a genetically engineered dicistronic poliovirus. Molla, A., Jang, S.K., Paul, A.V., Reuer, Q., Wimmer, E. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus: implications for flavivirus gene expression and evolution. Rice, C.M., Lenches, E.M., Eddy, S.R., Shin, S.J., Sheets, R.L., Strauss, J.H. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. A pilot study of ribavirin and interferon beta for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Kakumu, S., Yoshioka, K., Wakita, T., Ishikawa, T., Takayanagi, M., Higashi, Y. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Replicating hepatitis delta virus RNA is edited in the nucleus by the small form of ADAR1. Wong, S.K., Lazinski, D.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. A pilot study of combination therapy with ribavirin plus interferon alfa for interferon alfa-resistant chronic hepatitis C. Brillanti, S., Garson, J., Foli, M., Whitby, K., Deaville, R., Masci, C., Miglioli, M., Barbara, L. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. RNA viruses as virotherapy agents. Russell, S.J. Cancer Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Editorial: Systemic lupus erythematosus and type C RNA viruses. Christian, C.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of cycloheximide on virus RNA replication in an inducible line of polyoma-transformed rat cells. Manor, H., Neer, A. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. A mechanism for initiating RNA-dependent RNA polymerization. Butcher, S.J., Grimes, J.M., Makeyev, E.V., Bamford, D.H., Stuart, D.I. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The broad-spectrum antiviral ribonucleoside ribavirin is an RNA virus mutagen. Crotty, S., Maag, D., Arnold, J.J., Zhong, W., Lau, J.Y., Hong, Z., Andino, R., Cameron, C.E. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Pol of gag-pol fusion protein required for encapsidation of viral RNA of yeast L-A virus. Fujimura, T., Ribas, J.C., Makhov, A.M., Wickner, R.B. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of a structural glycoprotein of an RNA virus as a ribonuclease. Schneider, R., Unger, G., Stark, R., Schneider-Scherzer, E., Thiel, H.J. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Preferential selection of adenosines for modification by double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase. Polson, A.G., Bass, B.L. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanism of mRNA capping by vaccinia virus guanylyltransferase: characterization of an enzyme--guanylate intermediate. Shuman, S., Hurwitz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. DNA and RNA virus species are inhibited by xanthates, a class of antiviral compounds with unique properties. Sauer, G., Amtmann, E., Melber, K., Knapp, A., Müller, K., Hummel, K., Scherm, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Rates of aggregation, loss of anchorage dependence, and tumorigenicity of cultured cells. Wright, T.C., Ukena, T.E., Campbell, R., Karnovsky, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Detection of Coxsackie-B-virus-specific RNA sequences in myocardial biopsy samples from patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Bowles, N.E., Richardson, P.J., Olsen, E.G., Archard, L.C. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Members of the NF90/NFAR protein group are involved in the life cycle of a positive-strand RNA virus. Isken, O., Grassmann, C.W., Sarisky, R.T., Kann, M., Zhang, S., Grosse, F., Kao, P.N., Behrens, S.E. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Polyprotein processing in African swine fever virus: a novel gene expression strategy for a DNA virus. Simón-Mateo, C., Andrés, G., Viñuela, E. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Specific detection of minus-strand hepatitis C virus RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction on PolyA(+)-purified RNA. Takyar, S.T., Li, D., Wang, Y., Trowbridge, R., Gowans, E.J. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Phosphorylation of Sendai virus phosphoprotein by cellular protein kinase C zeta. Huntley, C.C., De, B.P., Banerjee, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Hepatitis C virus induces a mutator phenotype: enhanced mutations of immunoglobulin and protooncogenes. Machida, K., Cheng, K.T., Sung, V.M., Shimodaira, S., Lindsay, K.L., Levine, A.M., Lai, M.Y., Lai, M.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Double-stranded RNA induces sickle erythrocyte adherence to endothelium: a potential role for viral infection in vaso-occlusive pain episodes in sickle cell anemia. Smolinski, P.A., Offermann, M.K., Eckman, J.R., Wick, T.M. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Guanylate cyclase and cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase activities and cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate levels in normal and transformed fibroblasts in culture. Nesbitt, J.A., Anderson, W.B., Miller, Z., Pastan, I., Russell, T.R., Gospodarowicz, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Cotranslational membrane insertion of the serine proteinase precursor NS2B-NS3(Pro) of dengue virus type 2 is required for efficient in vitro processing and is mediated through the hydrophobic regions of NS2B. Clum, S., Ebner, K.E., Padmanabhan, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Replication-dependent potent IFN-alpha induction in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells by a single-stranded RNA virus. Hornung, V., Schlender, J., Guenthner-Biller, M., Rothenfusser, S., Endres, S., Conzelmann, K.K., Hartmann, G. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus. Muñoz-Jordan, J.L., Sánchez-Burgos, G.G., Laurent-Rolle, M., García-Sastre, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Negative regulation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-induced antiviral state by the ubiquitin-editing protein A20. Lin, R., Yang, L., Nakhaei, P., Sun, Q., Sharif-Askari, E., Julkunen, I., Hiscott, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. IFN-alpha enhances TLR3-mediated antiviral cytokine expression in human endothelial and epithelial cells by up-regulating TLR3 expression. Tissari, J., Sirén, J., Meri, S., Julkunen, I., Matikainen, S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Selective STAT protein degradation induced by paramyxoviruses requires both STAT1 and STAT2 but is independent of alpha/beta interferon signal transduction. Parisien, J.P., Lau, J.F., Rodriguez, J.J., Ulane, C.M., Horvath, C.M. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. The nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of grapevine virus B. Saldarelli, P., Minafra, A., Martelli, G.P. J. Gen. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. RNA sequence of astrovirus: distinctive genomic organization and a putative retrovirus-like ribosomal frameshifting signal that directs the viral replicase synthesis. Jiang, B., Monroe, S.S., Koonin, E.V., Stine, S.E., Glass, R.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. One-step RNA polymerase chain reaction for detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. Hu, K.Q., Yu, C.H., Vierling, J.M. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Demonstration of Coxsackie virus RNA in formalin-fixed tissue sections from childhood myocarditis cases by in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. Hilton, D.A., Variend, S., Pringle, J.H. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Flock house virus RNA replicates on outer mitochondrial membranes in Drosophila cells. Miller, D.J., Schwartz, M.D., Ahlquist, P. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Etiology of acute sporadic hepatitis in Spain: the role of hepatitis C and E viruses. Buti, M., Jardi, R., Rodriguez-Frias, F., Quer, J., Esteban, R., Guardia, J. J. Hepatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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