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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bromopyruvate as an active-site-directed inhibitor of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Escherichia coli.

Bromopyruvate behaves as an active-site-directed inhibitor of the pyruvate decarboxylase (E1) component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli. It requires the cofactor thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) and acts initially as an inhibitor competitive with pyruvate (Ki ca. 90 microM) but then proceeds to react irreversibly with the enzyme, probably with the thiol group of a cysteine residue. E1 catalyzes the decomposition of bromopyruvate, the enzyme becoming inactivated once every 40-60 turnovers. Bromopyruvate also inactivates the intact pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in a TPP-dependent process, but the inhibition is more rapid and is mechanistically different. Under these conditions, bromopyruvate is decarboxylated, and the lipoic acid residues in the lipoate acetyltransferase ( E2) component become reductively bromoacetylated. Further bromopyruvate then reacts with the new thiol groups thus generated in the lipoic acid residues, inactivating the complex. If reaction with the lipoic acid residues is prevented by prior treatment of the complex with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of pyruvate, the mode of inhibition reverts to irreversible reaction with the E1 component. In both types of inhibition of E1, reaction of 1 mol of bromopyruvate/mol of E1 chain is required for complete inactivation, and all the evidence is consistent with reaction taking place at or near the pyruvate binding site.[1]


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