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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Adrenodoxin reductase. Properties of the complexes of reduced enzyme with NADP+ and NADPH.

Anaerobic reduction of the flavoprotein adrenodoxin reductase with NADPH yields a spectrum with long wavelength absorbance, 750 nm and higher. No EPR signal is observed. This spectrum is produced by titration of oxidized adrenodoxin reductase with NADPH, or of dithionite-reduced adrenodoxin reductase with NADP+. Both titrations yield a sharp endpoint at 1 NADP(H) added per flavin. Reduction with other reductants, including dithionite, excess NADH, and catalytic NADP+ with an NADPH generating system, yields a typical fully reduced flavin spectrum, without long wavelength absorbance. The species formed on NADPH reduction appears to be a two-electron-containing complex, with a low dissociation constant, between reduced adrenodoxin reductase and NADP+, designated ARH2-NADP+. Titration of dithionite-reduced adrenodoxin reductase with NADPH also produces a distinctive spectrum, with a sharp endpoint at 1 NADPH added per reduced flavin, indicating formation of a four-electron-containing complex between reduced adrenodoxin reductase and NADPH. Titration of adrenodoxin reductase with NADH, instead of NADPH, provides a curved titration plot rather than the sharp break seen with NADPH, and permits calculation of a potential for the AR/ARH2 couple of -0.291 V, close to that of NAD(P)H (-0.316 V). Oxidized adrenodoxin reductase binds NADP+ much more weakly (Kdiss=1.4 X 10(-5) M) than does reduced adrenodoxin reductase, with a single binding site. The preferential binding of NADP+ to reduced enzyme permits prediction of a more positive oxidation-reduction potential of the flavoprotein in the presence of NADP+; a change of about + 0.1 V has been demonstrated by titration with safranine T. From this alteration in potential, a Kdiss of 1.0 X 10(-8) M for binding of NADP+ to reduced adrenodoxin reductase is calculated. It is concluded that the strong binding of NADP+ to reduced adrenodoxin reductase provides the thermodynamic driving force for formation of a fully reduced flavoprotein form under conditions wherein incomplete reduction would otherwise be expected. Stopped flow studies demonstrate that reduction of adrenodoxin reductase by equimolar NADPH to form the ARH2-NADP+ complex is first order (k=28 s-1). When a large excess of NADPH is used, a second apparently first order process is observed (k=4.25 s-1), which is interpreted as replacement of NADPH for NADP+ in the ARH2-NADP+ complex. Comparison of these rate constants to catalytic flavin turnover numbers for reduction of various oxidants by NADPH, suggests an ordered sequential mechanism in which reduction of oxidant is accomplished by the ARH2-NADP+ complex, followed by dissociation of NADP+. The absolute dependence of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction on both adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin is confirmed...[1]


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