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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from Micropterus salmoides. Purification, properties, and inhibition by glutamine analogs.

The glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III present in liver of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has been highly purified. The properties of the enzyme are generally similar to the properties of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III from spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) previously described (Anderson, P. M. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 12228-12238). However, the bass enzyme is not subject to self-association, and the effects of urea and, particularly, trimethylamine-N-oxide, on catalytic activity are considerably reduced. Ammonia can substitute for glutamine as the nitrogen-donating substrate, but the maximum rate is lower. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III, like other carbamoyl phosphate synthetases, catalyzes two partial reactions, ATP synthesis from carbamoyl phosphate and ADP, and bicarbonate-dependent hydrolysis of ATP; both reactions are greatly stimulated by the presence of N-acetyl-L-glutamate. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III gave no detectable immunological cross-reaction with antibody to the ammonia- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from rat liver mitochondria. The apparent Km value for N-acetyl-L-glutamate decreases significantly as the concentration of L-glutamine increases in the glutamine-dependent reaction, and vice versa. This effect is glutamine-specific. The apparent Km for N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the ammonia-dependent reaction is not affected by changes in ammonia concentration and the apparent Km for ammonia (8 mM) is also not affected by changes in N-acetyl-L-glutamate concentration. Studies involving inhibition of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III by the glutamine analogs acivicin (L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid), DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine), and chloroketone (L-2-amino-4-oxo-5-chloropentanoic acid), provided additional evidence for significant interaction between the L-glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-binding sites. Glutamine-dependent but not ammonia-dependent activity is inhibited by preincubating the enzyme with these analogs. This inhibition requires the presence of both MgATP and N-acetyl-L-glutamate, and is prevented by the additional presence of L-glutamine. Inhibition of the glutamine-dependent reaction by DON or chloroketone is accompanied by a decrease in the apparent Km for N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the ammonia-dependent reaction from 0.3 mM to a value which is nearly the same as that observed in the glutamine-dependent reaction when glutamine is saturating (0.015 mM).[1]


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