The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Normalization of in vitro sensitivity testing of human tumor clonogenic cells.

The use of normal bone marrow (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units) as a point of reference to normalize the in vitro activities of anticancer agents has been investigated. The cytotoxic effects of four substituted anthraquinone derivatives, and of vinblastine on myeloid progenitors of different donors were reproducible up to a cell kill of approximately 60%. Equitoxic in vitro concentrations for normal bone marrows did not correlate with in vivo pharmacokinetic concentrations of these drugs. Breast tumor progenitor cells of 46 specimens were more sensitive than were bone marrow progenitors to the anthraquinone derivatives in 26 to 39% of instances, ratios which are similar to the clinically observed response rates of patients with breast carcinoma to these agents. Tumors were either sensitive or resistant to all four drugs in 68% (10 tumors were more sensitive, and 21 tumors were less sensitive than normal bone marrow); but in 32% of instances there were differences in tumor sensitivity for the four drugs, and the assay could select one to three drugs for which the tumor sensitivity was greater than that of bone marrow. Correlations of in vitro sensitivity and of clinical response to single agent treatments were determined in 21 patients, and the concordance was 71%. The value of the assay in predicting clinical response ranked best for sensitivity determinations within the normalized dose ranges, when testing within three different dose ranges was compared in a group of six patients. The concordance was higher in the small (1 or 2 metastatic sites) than in the large (greater than or equal to 3 metastatic sites) tumors (85 versus 50%), indicating a confounding influence of tumor load on the ability of the assay to predict efficacy of treatment. A rule of thumb is proposed for altering the in vitro sensitivity test results for large tumors that improves the overall concordance to 90%.[1]


  1. Normalization of in vitro sensitivity testing of human tumor clonogenic cells. Hug, V., Thames, H., Blumenschein, G.R., Spitzer, G., Drewinko, B. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities