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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evaluation of a new bipyridine inotropic agent--milrinone--in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

Milrinone, a derivative of amrinone, has nearly 20 times the inotropic potency of the parent compound and does not cause fever or thrombocytopenia in normal volunteers or in animals sensitive to amrinone. In 20 patients with severe congestive heart failure, intravenous milrinone resulted in significant decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (from 27 +/- 2 to 18 +/- 2 mm Hg), pulmonary wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance, as well as a slight reduction in mean arterial pressure. Significant increases occurred in cardiac index (from 1.9 +/- 0.1 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 liters per minute per square meter) and the peak positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure, with a slight increase in heart rate. Hemodynamic improvement was sustained during a 24-hour continuous infusion. Nineteen of the 20 patients subsequently received oral milrinone (29 +/- 2 mg per day) for up to 11 months (mean, 6.0 +/- 0.8), with sustained improvement in symptoms of heart failure. In 10 patients receiving long-term oral milrinone (greater than or equal to 6 months) radionuclide ventriculography showed continued responsiveness, with a 27 per cent increase in left ventricular ejection fraction after 7.5 mg of the drug. Four patients died after a mean of 4.8 months of therapy, and three patients with severe underlying coronary-artery disease and angina pectoris required additional antianginal therapy. No patient had fever, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal intolerance, or aggravation of ventricular ectopy. We conclude that milrinone shows promise for the longterm treatment of congestive heart failure.[1]


  1. Evaluation of a new bipyridine inotropic agent--milrinone--in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Baim, D.S., McDowell, A.V., Cherniles, J., Monrad, E.S., Parker, J.A., Edelson, J., Braunwald, E., Grossman, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
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