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Chemical Compound Review

Amrinone     3-amino-5-pyridin-4-yl-1H- pyridin-2-one

Synonyms: Amrinona, Cartonic, Wincoram, Amrinon, Cordemcura, ...
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Disease relevance of Wincoram


Psychiatry related information on Wincoram


High impact information on Wincoram


Chemical compound and disease context of Wincoram


Biological context of Wincoram

  • Tachyphylaxis with amrinone therapy: association with sequestration and down-regulation of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors [13].
  • The positive inotropic effects of amrinone were most pronounced at low frequencies of stimulation (0.01 to 0.25 Hz) and were nearly obliterated at more physiologic heart rates (0.5 to 1.25 Hz) [14].
  • Hemodynamic effects of intravenous administration of amrinone include increases in dP/dt, cardiac output, and stroke work with decreases in left ventricular filling pressure and systemic vascular resistance [15].
  • After nitroprusside was stopped, intravenous amrinone (3 mg/kg) caused decreases from baseline in pulmonary arterial end-systolic pressure in eight of nine patients (23 +/- 11% [overall mean +/- SE], p less than .05), and in pulmonary vascular resistance in all patients (38 +/- 6%, p less than .001) [16].
  • The amrinone-induced decrease in right ventricular end-systolic volume was compared with that predicted for right ventricular afterload reduction alone based on the effect of amrinone on pulmonary arterial end-systolic pressure and the pressure-volume relationship observed during infusion of nitroprusside.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[16]

Anatomical context of Wincoram

  • Effects of amrinone, a cardiotonic drug, on calcium movements in dog erythrocytes [2].
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intravenous therapy with amrinone changes number, location or function of the beta-adrenergic receptors on lymphocytes [13].
  • To determine the hemodynamic and clinical effects of long-term positive inotropic stimulation on the myocardium, we treated 31 patients with severe chronic heart failure with oral amrinone (600 mg daily) and performed invasive hemodynamic studies during short- and long-term treatment with the drug [17].
  • The amrinone-induced hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease was associated with reductions in MVO2 and CBF and no evidence of myocardial ischemia [18].
  • The effects of amrinone and related agents were studied in mammalian cardiac and vascular smooth muscle preparations loaded intracellularly with aequorin, a bioluminescent calcium indicator that emits light when it combines with Ca++ [14].

Associations of Wincoram with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Wincoram

  • Amrinone also inhibited upregulation of ICAM-1 (p < .001) at therapeutic concentrations, and VCAM-1 (p < .001) at higher concentrations [20].
  • Intraperitoneal treatment of animals with amrinone (100 mg/kg) 30 min before LPS administration decreased both plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in the first phase of the response, but enhanced plasma levels of these cytokines in the second part [21].
  • Immunohistochemical investigation further revealed the VEGF-expressed cells in the sponge granulation tissues to be fibroblasts, and the intensity of positive reactions was enhanced by bFGF, 8-bromo-cAMP, forskolin, and amrinone [22].
  • All three PDE III inhibitors, amrinone, pimobendan and vesnarinone, inhibited TNF-alpha production, but vesnarinone's inhibitory effect was the most prominent [23].
  • Amrinone at 26 mumol/l and NKH477 at 10 nmol/l also had a less marked inhibitory effect against the production of IL-6 [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Wincoram


  1. Thrombocytopenia and fever in a patient taking amrinone. Rubin, S.A., Lee, S., O'Connor, L., Hubenette, A., Tober, J., Swan, H.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of amrinone, a cardiotonic drug, on calcium movements in dog erythrocytes. Parker, J.C., Harper, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture. Krieger, N.S., Stappenbeck, T.S., Stern, P.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Correction of dilutional hyponatremia in severe chronic heart failure by converting-enzyme inhibition. Packer, M., Medina, N., Yushak, M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Vesnarinone and amrinone reduce the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Takeuchi, K., del Nido, P.J., Ibrahim, A.E., Cao-Danh, H., Friehs, I., Glynn, P., Poutias, D., Cowan, D.B., McGowan, F.X. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of a new bipyridine inotropic agent--milrinone--in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Baim, D.S., McDowell, A.V., Cherniles, J., Monrad, E.S., Parker, J.A., Edelson, J., Braunwald, E., Grossman, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of virus-induced myocardial injury with a novel immunomodulating agent, vesnarinone. Suppression of natural killer cell activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Matsui, S., Matsumori, A., Matoba, Y., Uchida, A., Sasayama, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Additive effects of dobutamine and amrinone on myocardial contractility and ventricular performance in patients with severe heart failure. Gage, J., Rutman, H., Lucido, D., LeJemtel, T.H. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Hemodynamic and regional blood flow distribution responses to dextran, hydralazine, isoproterenol and amrinone during experimental cardiac tamponade. Millard, R.W., Fowler, N.O., Gabel, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Amrinone-associated thrombocytopenia: pharmacokinetic analysis. Ross, M.P., Allen-Webb, E.M., Pappas, J.B., McGough, E.C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Suppression of IL-12 production by phosphodiesterase inhibition in murine endotoxemia is IL-10 independent. Haskó, G., Szabó, C., Németh, Z.H., Salzman, A.L., Vizi, E.S. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The beneficial effect of amrinone on acute drug-induced heart failure in the anaesthetised dog. Alousi, A.A., Canter, J.M., Fort, D.J. Cardiovasc. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Tachyphylaxis with amrinone therapy: association with sequestration and down-regulation of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors. Maisel, A.S., Wright, C.M., Carter, S.M., Ziegler, M., Motulsky, H.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of amrinone and related drugs on intracellular calcium in isolated mammalian cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. Morgan, J.P., Gwathmey, J.K., DeFeo, T.T., Morgan, K.G. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical effects of intravenous amrinone in patients with congestive heart failure. Goldstein, R.A. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of amrinone on right ventricular function: predominance of afterload reduction. Konstam, M.A., Cohen, S.R., Salem, D.N., Das, D., Aronovitz, M.J., Brockway, B.A. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Hemodynamic and clinical limitations of long-term inotropic therapy with amrinone in patients with severe chronic heart failure. Packer, M., Medina, N., Yushak, M. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of amrinone on myocardial energy metabolism and hemodynamics in patients with severe congestive heart failure due to coronary artery disease. Benotti, J.R., Grossman, W., Braunwald, E., Carabello, B.A. Circulation (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta by amrinone-induced nitric oxide release. Mori, K., Takeuchi, S., Moritoki, H., Tsuchiya, K., Nakaya, Y., Matsuoka, S., Kuroda, Y. Eur. Heart J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Inotropes inhibit endothelial cell surface adhesion molecules induced by interleukin-1beta. Fortenberry, J.D., Huber, A.R., Owens, M.L. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Amrinone and theophylline differentially regulate cytokine and nitric oxide production in endotoxemic mice. Németh, Z.H., Haskó, G., Szabó, C., Vizi, E.S. Shock (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Cyclooxygenase-2 and adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway enhances angiogenesis through induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in rat sponge implants. Amano, H., Haysahi, I., Yoshida, S., Yoshimura, H., Majima, M. Hum. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential modulation of cytokine production by drugs: implications for therapy in heart failure. Matsumori, A., Ono, K., Sato, Y., Shioi, T., Nose, Y., Sasayama, S. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Inotropic agent vesnarinone inhibits cytokine production and E-selectin expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Sato, Y., Matsumori, A., Sasayama, S. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Long-term oral administration of amrinone for congestive heart failure: lack of efficacy in a multicenter controlled trial. Massie, B., Bourassa, M., DiBianco, R., Hess, M., Konstam, M., Likoff, M., Packer, M. Circulation (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Cardiotonic activity of amrinone--Win 40680 [5-amino-3,4'-bipyridine-6(1H)-one]. Alousi, A.A., Farah, A.E., Lesher, G.Y., Opalka, C.J. Circ. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Selective pulmonary and systemic vasodilator effects of amrinone in children: new therapeutic implications. Robinson, B.W., Gelband, H., Mas, M.S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Amrinone increases ventricular contractility and diastolic compliance in endotoxemia. Werner, H.A., Herbertson, M.J., Walley, K.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
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