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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Therapeutic effectiveness and safety of outdated human red blood cells rejuvenated to improve oxygen transport function, frozen for about 1.5 years at 80 C, washed, and stored at 4 C for 24 hours prior to rapid infusion.

After storage at 4 C for 20 to 28 days, red blood cells were biochemically modified to improve their oxygen transport function which had deteriorated during liquid storage. The solution used for rejuvenation contained pyruvate, inosine, glucose, phosphate, and adenine (PIGPA Solution B). The rejuvenated red blood cells were frozen with 40% W/V glycerol in a polyolefin plastic bag and were stored in the frozen state for about 1.5 years at -80 C. After thawing and washing the red blood cells were stored at 4 C in a sodium chloride-glucose-phosphate solution for 24 hours before transfusion. A pool of four to ten units was rapidly transfused to each of 14 elderly anemic recipients, 11 of whom had cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Recovery of the red blood cells after the freeze-thaw process was about 97 per cent, and after the freeze-thaw-wash process about 90 per cent. The 24-hour posttransfusion survival values were about 75 per cent, and the long-term survival values were about 85 days depending on the disease state of the recipient. The red blood cells had 1.5 times normal 2.3-DPG levels and a decreased affinity for oxygen at the time of transfusion and were able to delivery oxygen at high oxygen tension immediately after the rapid infusion of pools of from four to ten units through a 40-or 170-micron filter. Plasma hemoglobin levels were consistent with extravascular sequestration of nonviable red blood cells, and uric acid levels were not increased during the immediate 24-hour posttransfusion period.[1]


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