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Chemical Compound Review

glycerin     propane-1,2,3-triol

Synonyms: Dagralax, Glicerol, Glysanin, Glyzerin, Oelsuess, ...
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Disease relevance of glycerol


Psychiatry related information on glycerol

  • Interstitial glycerol and lactate production was measured in the s.c. adipose tissue of two anatomical regions in 10 obese urban black women (BW) and 10 obese urban white women (WW) matched for age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, diet, and physical activity [5].
  • Rats were injected with 50% glycerol (8 ml/kg) i.m. after overnight water deprivation and sacrificed 24 hours later [6].
  • Transcutaneous pCO2 electrode response time was optimized by use of a new electrode filling solution composed of NaCl/NaHCO3 electrolyte buffer (100 and 20 mmol/L, respectively) in an equivolume mixture of glycerol and water [7].
  • Solution 1H NMR (proton-NMR) spectroscopy was used to measure the distribution of nicotine between its free-base and protonated forms at 20 degrees C in (a) water; (b) glycerin/water mixtures; and (c) puff-averaged "smoke" particulate matter (PM) produced by the Eclipse cigarette, a so-called "harm reduction" cigarette manufactured by R [8].
  • AnxFF binding determination was combined with that of cell electrophoretic mobility, glycerol resistance and filterability to characterize RBC membrane modifications in Alzheimer's disease patients which suggested a continuous damage and regeneration in RBC of these patients [9].

High impact information on glycerol

  • Multifunctional aquaglyceroporins AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9 are permeated by water, glycerol, and some other solutes [10].
  • Triglyceride synthesis has been assumed to occur primarily through acyl CoA:diacylglycerol transferase (Dgat), a microsomal enzyme that catalyses the final and only committed step in the glycerol phosphate pathway [11].
  • Several members of the MIP family transport water (aquaporins), glycerol and other small molecules in microbial, plant and animal cells [12].
  • Ste5 copurifies with Ste11, Fus3, and a hypophosphorylated form of Ste7, and all four proteins cosediment in a glycerol gradient as if in a large complex [13].
  • Column chromatography and glycerol gradient sedimentation indicate that a subpopulation of TBP copurifies with SL1 activity [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of glycerol


Biological context of glycerol

  • Primer-dependent polyadenylation activity was associated exclusively with purified VP55-VP39 heterodimer, which, although stable to column chromatography and glycerol gradient sedimentation, was readily dissociated by antibody to an N-terminal peptide of VP55 [20].
  • Phosphorylase and glycerol production activated by cold in diapausing silkmoth pupae [21].
  • Dose-response studies of the inhibition of lipolysis by insulin in isolated human adipocytes were conducted with the use of a sensitive bioluminescent assay of glycerol release [22].
  • Elevation of body glycerol concentration by multiple daily injections of glycerol was shown to lead to hypophagia and body weight loss followed by normal food intake and normal rate of body weight increase in rats [23].
  • Mice carrying approximately 25 copies of a transgene encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase expressed from 50 to 200 times the level of enzyme produced by a single copy of the normal endogenous gene [24].

Anatomical context of glycerol

  • DNA primase isolated from human mitochondria sediments in glycerol density gradients at 30S and 70S [25].
  • The activity of the enzyme in leukocytes and levels of plasmalogens (the major class of cellular glycerol-ether lipids) in erythrocytes were also deficient in a patient, but normal levels of leukocyte enzyme and erythrocyte plasmalogens were found in her parents [2].
  • The fluorescently labeled stress fibers remained intact despite glycerol or digitonin extraction of the cells; furthermore, these cell models contracted upon addition of MgATP [26].
  • By inducing GyK, TZDs markedly stimulate glycerol incorporation into triglyceride and reduce FFA secretion from adipocytes [27].
  • Chylomicrons formed in the intestinal mucosa during the absorption of the products of digestion, are processed by the peripheral circulation by lipoprotein lipase, which catalyses the breakdown of triglycerides in chylomicrons to free fatty acids and glycerol [28].

Associations of glycerol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of glycerol

  • Though the CYC1 promoter is fully induced in yeast grown in glycerol medium, UASC-GAL chimeric promoters containing UASG were repressed as much as 400-fold (UASC-GAL1) or 1350-fold (UASC-GAL10) in this growth medium [37].
  • Here we show that overexpression of FPS1 enhances glycerol production [38].
  • The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation [39].
  • Mutants deleted for both GPD1 and GPD2 do not produce detectable glycerol, are highly osmosensitive and fail to grow under anoxic conditions [39].
  • Reductions in turgor caused by either hyperosmotic stress, nystatin, or removal of cell wall activate MAPK Hog1 specifically through the SLN1 branch, but not through the SHO1 branch of the high osmolarity glycerol pathway [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of glycerol

  • Gel filtration experiments and glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis suggest that the bulk of p37mos exists as a monomer and is not involved in a specific association with other cellular proteins [41].
  • Glycerol gradient sedimentation and immunoprecipitation analyses indicate that TFIID is a multiprotein complex containing TBP and at least six tightly bound TBP-associated factors (TAFs) [42].
  • The in vitro splicing reactions of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) in a yeast extract were analyzed by glycerol gradient centrifugation [43].
  • We show that after reaction with DNA bearing Chi sites, RecBCD enzyme is inactivated and the three subunits migrate as separate species during glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation or native gel electrophoresis [44].
  • The fourth family was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization for prenatal diagnosis, and both the DAX1 locus and the contiguous glycerol kinase region were deleted [45].


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