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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phototoxicology. 2. Near-ultraviolet light enhancement of Microtox assays of trinitrotoluene and aminodinitrotoluenes.

Coexposure of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A), or 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A) to near-ultraviolet (nuv) light (lambda max-354 nm) significantly enhanced their toxicity toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox bioassay) during 30 min but not 15 min. Based on the slopes of the dose-response lines, the nuv coexposure and dark toxic mechanisms of action for TNT, 2A, and 4A appeared to be similar. nuv coexposure of binary mixtures significantly enhanced (supraadditivity) the toxicity of these compounds to P. phosphoreum. Under normal laboratory lighting, the toxicity of TNT + 2A and 2A + 4A mixtures were supraadditive but the toxicity of TNT + 4A mixtures could be explained by simple addition. Supporting these conclusions, the response curves of alpha-terthienyl, a compound known not to require nuv for toxicity, were similar in the dark and with nuv coexposure. In contrast, angelicin and psoralen, compounds known to require nuv coexposure to damage DNA, gave response curves having different slopes in the dark and with nuv coexposure. The nuv coexposure Microtox assay was able to detect and quantify phototoxicity in psoralen, angelicin, alpha-terthienyl, anthracene, TNT, and aminodinitrotoluenes.[1]


  1. Phototoxicology. 2. Near-ultraviolet light enhancement of Microtox assays of trinitrotoluene and aminodinitrotoluenes. Johnson, L.R., Davenport, R., Balbach, H., Schaeffer, D.J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1994) [Pubmed]
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