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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Structure and dynamics of interstrand guanine association in quadruplex telomeric DNA.

Exchanges of the amino and imino protons in guanine quartets of telomeric DNA have been time-resolved by laser Raman spectroscopy. The Raman dynamic probe has been applied to parallel and antiparallel quadruplexes formed by the telomeric repeat of Oxytricha nova, d(T4G4)4, and to the highly thermostable parallel quadruplex formed by d(G12). Time-dependent Raman spectra of the d(G12) quadruplex reveal two characteristic exchange reactions for guanine N2 amino groups. At 10 degrees C, the pseudo-first-order exchange rates are kN2H(10 degrees C) = 5.7 x 10(-3) and k'N2H'(10 degrees C) = 1.2 x 10(-2) min-1, assignable to Hoogsteen-hydrogen-bonded and non-hydrogen-bonded N2 protons, respectively. These measurements provide the first quantitative determination of two kinetically distinct N2 amino proton exchange reactions in the guanine quartet and demonstrate that amino group rotation about the C2-N2 bond is highly restricted in the quadruplex. No exchange of guanine N1 imino sites occurs in d(G12) at 10 degrees C, and N1 exchange remains slow even at 95 degrees C [kN1H(95 degrees C) = 2.7 x 10(-2) min-1], indicating severe suppression of imino exchange in guanine quartets. For both parallel and antiparallel quadruplexes of d(T4G4)4, proton exchange rates decrease in the order thymine N3 imino > guanine N2 amino > guanine N1 imino. The rapid exchange of thymine N3 imino sites indicates that thymine quartets are not stabilized in Oxytricha quadruplexes. The protium-->deuterium exchange experiments also establish new guanine Raman band assignments. Importantly, the 1603 cm-1 band is due to in-plane bending of N1-H, while the 1644 cm-1 band involves scissoring of the N2 amino group. Accordingly, the 1603 and 1644 cm-1 bands are potentially valuable markers of hydrogen-bonding interactions specific to guanine imino and amino sites, respectively. The present findings also show that guanine hydrogen bonding and exchange dynamics are not interrelated in a simple manner. Despite extraordinary retardation of N1 imino proton exchange, Raman markers suggest that Hoogsteen-type guanine-guanine hydrogen bonding (N1-H...O=C6) is comparable in strength to hydrogen bonding of N1-H with water and, surprisingly, much weaker than hydrogen bonding between N1-H and the cytosine N3 acceptor of Watson-Crick B DNA.[1]


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