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History and physical examination.

In summary, the history and physical examination provide a valuable overview of a patient's condition and clues as to the causes. Typically, the most important features are evidence of gynecomastia, completeness of genital development and virilization, testicular size and consistency, and condition of the prostate gland. Preliminary laboratory evaluation is usually done at the conclusion of the initial evaluation and generally includes a total or free testosterone level, a semen analysis, urinalysis, and screening profiles for blood count, liver and renal function, and serum electrolytes. A more detailed hormonal evaluation would include gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol, and possibly thyroid studies. With this information complete, the astute clinician can develop a working diagnosis and plan for further evaluation or referral to a specialist.[1]


  1. History and physical examination. Clark, R.V. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. (1994) [Pubmed]
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