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Disease relevance of Semen


Psychiatry related information on Semen

  • This study provides evidence for a significant decline in semen quality of male IVF patients at egg retrieval and demonstrates an inverse relationship between semen quality and specific aspects of psychological stress [5].
  • In summary, lutalyse increased libido scores, but did not affect the number of boars trained for semen collection [6].
  • Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (P<0.05) decreased libido (by increasing the reaction time), ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm output, sperm motility (%), total motile sperm per ejaculate (TMS), packed sperm volume (PSV), total functional sperm fraction (TFSF), normal and live sperm and semen initial fructose [7].

High impact information on Semen

  • In his scheme, hot semen generated males, whereas cold semen made females (Jacquart, D., and C. Thomasset. Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages, 1988) [8].
  • Specifically, we show that the evolution of SEMG2, the gene encoding semenogelin II, a main structural component of semen coagulum, is accelerated in polyandrous primates relative to monandrous primates [9].
  • We compared the results of semen analyses and measurements of testicular volume, serum testosterone, inhibin B, and gonadotropins in these men with the results in 24 men with classic GnRH deficiency before and during GnRH-replacement therapy and in 29 normal men of similar age [10].
  • Decline in semen quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years [11].
  • Semen from normal and vasectomized men contains high levels of p30 (mean, 1.55 mg per milliliter of seminal plasma), and urine from men contains low levels (mean, 260 ng per milliliter) [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Semen


Biological context of Semen

  • The data on the semen samples were collected at one sperm bank in Paris. The data in each calendar year were analyzed as a function of the year of donation, the age of each patient, the year of birth, and the duration of sexual abstinence before semen collection [11].
  • We propose that PGE2 in human semen might directly facilitate the infection of AIDS-associated virus and cause the efficient transmission of the virus during sexual activities [17].
  • Endocervical biopsy specimens were obtained from women in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six men (not receiving antiretroviral therapy) in whom CD4 cell count and semen volume were available, and 24 women in whom the number of endocervical CCR5 receptors were determined [18].
  • This result indicates that sperm motility is not O2 limited and suggests that seminal fluid contains a volatile inhibitor of motility which is responsible for the paralysis of sperm in semen [19].
  • Prior hCG/human menopausal gonadotropin therapy had resulted in high normal serum T levels and near-normal semen quality, but during subsequent hCG therapy, spermatogenesis markedly decreased [20].

Anatomical context of Semen


Associations of Semen with chemical compounds


Gene context of Semen


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Semen


  1. Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA-binding protein gene. Reijo, R., Lee, T.Y., Salo, P., Alagappan, R., Brown, L.G., Rosenberg, M., Rozen, S., Jaffe, T., Straus, D., Hovatta, O. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of disease stage and zidovudine therapy on the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in semen. Anderson, D.J., O'Brien, T.R., Politch, J.A., Martinez, A., Seage, G.R., Padian, N., Horsburgh, C.R., Mayer, K.H. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Concurrent zidovudine levels in semen and serum determined by radioimmunoassay in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. Henry, K., Chinnock, B.J., Quinn, R.P., Fletcher, C.V., de Miranda, P., Balfour, H.H. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. A combination of nucleoside analogues and a protease inhibitor reduces HIV-1 RNA levels in semen: implications for sexual transmission of HIV infection. Liuzzi, G., Chirianni, A., Bagnarelli, P., Clementi, M., Piazza, M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Relationship between psychological stress and semen quality among in-vitro fertilization patients. Clarke, R.N., Klock, S.C., Geoghegan, A., Travassos, D.E. Hum. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of lutalyse on the training of sexually inexperienced boars for semen collection. Kozink, D.M., Estienne, M.J., Harper, A.F., Knight, J.W. Theriogenology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Aluminium-induced deterioration in reproductive performance and seminal plasma biochemistry of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid. Yousef, M.I., El-Morsy, A.M., Hassan, M.S. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of sexual dimorphism in mammals. Haqq, C.M., Donahoe, P.K. Physiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity. Dorus, S., Evans, P.D., Wyckoff, G.J., Choi, S.S., Lahn, B.T. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism--a treatable form of male infertility. Nachtigall, L.B., Boepple, P.A., Pralong, F.P., Crowley, W.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Decline in semen quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years. Auger, J., Kunstmann, J.M., Czyglik, F., Jouannet, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Postcoital detection of a male-specific semen protein. Application to the investigation of rape. Graves, H.C., Sensabaugh, G.F., Blake, E.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Human kallikrein 11: a new biomarker of prostate and ovarian carcinoma. Diamandis, E.P., Okui, A., Mitsui, S., Luo, L.Y., Soosaipillai, A., Grass, L., Nakamura, T., Howarth, D.J., Yamaguchi, N. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Sulphasalazine and male infertility: reversibility and possible mechanism. Toovey, S., Hudson, E., Hendry, W.F., Levi, A.J. Gut (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. An activating mutation of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor autonomously sustains spermatogenesis in a hypophysectomized man. Gromoll, J., Simoni, M., Nieschlag, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxidative damage to proteins and decrease of antioxidant capacity in patients with varicocele. Chen, S.S., Chang, L.S., Wei, Y.H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Prostaglandin E2, a seminal constituent, facilitates the replication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus in vitro. Kuno, S., Ueno, R., Hayaishi, O., Nakashima, H., Harada, S., Yamamoto, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Viral burden in genital secretions determines male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV-1: a probabilistic empiric model. Chakraborty, H., Sen, P.K., Helms, R.W., Vernazza, P.L., Fiscus, S.A., Eron, J.J., Patterson, B.K., Coombs, R.W., Krieger, J.N., Cohen, M.S. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. A volatile inhibitor immobilizes sea urchin sperm in semen by depressing the intracellular pH. Johnson, C.H., Clapper, D.L., Winkler, M.M., Lee, H.C., Epel, D. Dev. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Stimulation of spermatogenesis and biological paternity by intranasal (low dose) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a male with Kallmann's syndrome: intraindividual comparison of GnRH and gonadotropins for stimulation of spermatogenesis. Oppermann, D., Happ, J., Mayr, W.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein C inhibitor in human body fluids. Seminal plasma is rich in inhibitor antigen deriving from cells throughout the male reproductive system. Laurell, M., Christensson, A., Abrahamsson, P.A., Stenflo, J., Lilja, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Seminalplasmin: recent evolution of another member of the neuropeptide Y gene family. Herzog, H., Hort, Y., Schneider, R., Shine, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Disruption of spermatogenic cell adhesion and male infertility in mice lacking TSLC1/IGSF4, an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule. Yamada, D., Yoshida, M., Williams, Y.N., Fukami, T., Kikuchi, S., Masuda, M., Maruyama, T., Ohta, T., Nakae, D., Maekawa, A., Kitamura, T., Murakami, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Human kallikrein 14: a new potential biomarker for ovarian and breast cancer. Borgoño, C.A., Grass, L., Soosaipillai, A., Yousef, G.M., Petraki, C.D., Howarth, D.H., Fracchioli, S., Katsaros, D., Diamandis, E.P. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Human cystatin D. cDNA cloning, characterization of the Escherichia coli expressed inhibitor, and identification of the native protein in saliva. Freije, J.P., Balbín, M., Abrahamson, M., Velasco, G., Dalbøge, H., Grubb, A., López-Otín, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. A kallikrein-like serine protease in prostatic fluid cleaves the predominant seminal vesicle protein. Lilja, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Semen quality and spermatozoal DNA integrity in survivors of childhood cancer: a case-control study. Thomson, A.B., Campbell, A.J., Irvine, D.C., Anderson, R.A., Kelnar, C.J., Wallace, W.H. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Male infertility due to sulphasalazine. Levi, A.J., Fisher, A.M., Hughes, L., Hendry, W.F. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Semen quality after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Guo, Y.L., Hsu, P.C., Hsu, C.C., Lambert, G.H. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. The crystal structures of two spermadhesins reveal the CUB domain fold. Romero, A., Romão, M.J., Varela, P.F., Kölln, I., Dias, J.M., Carvalho, A.L., Sanz, L., Töpfer-Petersen, E., Calvete, J.J. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of the precursor of prostate-specific antigen. Activation by trypsin and by human glandular kallikrein. Takayama, T.K., Fujikawa, K., Davie, E.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Serpin-derived peptide substrates for investigating the substrate specificity of human tissue kallikreins hK1 and hK2. Bourgeois, L., Brillard-Bourdet, M., Deperthes, D., Juliano, M.A., Juliano, L., Tremblay, R.R., Dubé, J.Y., Gauthier, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 protease found in seminal plasma. Cohen, P., Graves, H.C., Peehl, D.M., Kamarei, M., Giudice, L.C., Rosenfeld, R.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. The 2.4 A resolution crystal structure of boar seminal plasma PSP-I/PSP-II: a zona pellucida-binding glycoprotein heterodimer of the spermadhesin family built by a CUB domain architecture. Varela, P.F., Romero, A., Sanz, L., Romão, M.J., Töpfer-Petersen, E., Calvete, J.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Human seminal clusterin (SP-40,40). Isolation and characterization. O'Bryan, M.K., Baker, H.W., Saunders, J.R., Kirszbaum, L., Walker, I.D., Hudson, P., Liu, D.Y., Glew, M.D., d'Apice, A.J., Murphy, B.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Does human semen contain a functional haemostatic system? A possible role for Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in fertility through semen liquefaction. Lwaleed, B.A., Greenfield, R.S., Birch, B.R., Cooper, A.J. Thromb. Haemost. (2005) [Pubmed]
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