The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Intraperitoneal versus interpleural morphine or bupivacaine for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

BACKGROUND: Opioids can produce peripheral analgesic effects by activation of opioid receptors on sensory nerves. This study was designed (1) to examine a novel route of opioid administration, the intraperitoneal injection; (2) to compare this to interpleural application, and (3) to compare opioid with local anesthetic effects under both conditions. METHODS: At the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 110 patients received the following injections in a double-blind, randomized manner: Group 1 (n = 18) was given intraperitoneal morphine (1 mg in 20 ml saline) and 20 ml intravenous saline. Group 2 (n = 17) received intraperitoneal saline and 1 mg intravenous morphine. Group 3 (n = 15) received 20 ml 0.25% intraperitoneal bupivacaine and intravenous saline. Group 4 (n = 20) received interpleural morphine (1.5 mg in 30 ml saline) and 30 ml intravenous saline. Group 5 (n = 20) received interpleural saline and 1.5 mg intravenous morphine. Group 6 (n = 20) received 30 ml 0.25% interpleural bupivacaine and intravenous saline. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analog scale, a numeric rating scale, and the McGill pain questionnaire. Pain localization, supplemental analgesic consumption, vital signs, and side effects were recorded for 24 h. RESULTS: Neither intraperitoneal nor interpleural morphine produced significant analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), whereas interpleural bupivacaine was effective (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test, up to 6 h postoperatively) but not intraperitoneal bupivacaine (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). Shoulder pain was not prevalent in the majority of patients during the first 6 h. By 24 h, about half of the patients complained of shoulder pain, which was rated "low" by about one-third of all patients. No significant side effects occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Interpleural bupivacaine (0.25%) produces analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We attribute the lack of effect of intraperitoneal injections to the small dose and to a rapid dilution within the peritoneal cavity. The fact that interpleural morphine (0.005%) is ineffective may be due to an intact perineurial barrier in the noninflamed pleural cavity, which restricts the transperineurial passage of morphine to opioid receptors on intercostal nerves.[1]


  1. Intraperitoneal versus interpleural morphine or bupivacaine for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Schulte-Steinberg, H., Weninger, E., Jokisch, D., Hofstetter, B., Misera, A., Lange, V., Stein, C. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities