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MeSH Review

Pain Measurement

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Disease relevance of Pain Measurement

  • Both drugs improved constipation as assessed by the patient by means of a visual analogue scale, but cisapride did so to a larger extent than placebo [1].
  • Dyspnea was assessed by Borg and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), plotted against the percent fall in FEV1, and expressed as the slope of the regression line (Slope-Borg and Slope-VAS) [2].
  • In a double-blind controlled trial in nine patients with tinnitus we measured the lidocaine plasma concentrations during and after intravenous administration of lidocaine or placebo and scored the level of tinnitus on a visual analog scale [3].
  • IENF density was compared with neuropathic pain intensity (measured with the Gracely Pain Scale), patient and physician global pain assessments, quantitative sensory testing, CD4 counts, and plasma HIV RNA levels both at baseline and at conclusion of the placebo-controlled phase [4].
  • Retrospective analysis of another study revealed that mexiletine recipients (225 to 675 mg/day) who described their pain as stabbing, burning or formication on the pain-rating-index-total instrument of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, experienced statistically significant reductions in VAS pain scores after 5 weeks, compared with placebo recipients [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pain Measurement

  • Compared with placebo, paroxetine treatment significantly (P<.001) improved the symptoms of social anxiety as shown on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Sheehan Disability Scale, Symptom Checklist-90 score, and EuroQol visual analogue scale, indicating decreased disability and increased well-being [6].
  • Secondary endpoints included body image evaluation (determined by ABCD questionnaire), facial aesthetic satisfaction (determined by Visual Analogue Scale), and aesthetic pre- and post-picture comparisons by independent reviewers [7].
  • The primary endpoints were the physical and mental health summary scores (PHS; MHS) of the MOS-HIV as well as a global visual analogue scale (VAS) score [8].
  • At regular time intervals hunger feelings were measured using visual analogue scales and food selection lists and plasma CCK was measured by radioimmunoassay [9].
  • The level of vigilance was first determined by assessing drowsiness using visual analogue scales and/or by several psychometric tests in four pharmacoclinical studies in healthy subjects or in hypertensive patients: three studies with single administration of rilmenidine (0.5 to 3.0 mg) and one study with repeated administration for three days [10].

High impact information on Pain Measurement


Chemical compound and disease context of Pain Measurement


Biological context of Pain Measurement


Anatomical context of Pain Measurement


Associations of Pain Measurement with chemical compounds

  • Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cues with visual analogue scales for desire to use cocaine now and for mood changes [31].
  • Of twenty-eight visual analogue scales rating mood and arousal, the subjects' ratings in the tyrosine treatment (9 g daily) and placebo periods differed significantly for only three (less tired, less drowsy, more alert) [32].
  • FINDINGS: L-NMMA reduced pain intensity on the visual analogue scale significantly more than placebo: 120 min after start of treatment, the mean pain score was decreased from 49 to 33 with L-NMMA and from 44 to 40 with placebo (p=0.01) [33].
  • Plasma prolactin and cortisol levels were used as neuroendocrine measures, whereas subjective responses were measured using a visual analog scale of 10 different mood states [34].
  • Ethanollike subjective effects were assessed using the Sensation Scale and visual analog scales to measure the degree of similarity to the effects of ethanol, cocaine, and marijuana [35].

Gene context of Pain Measurement

  • RA patients were clinically evaluated with a modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M-HAQ), joint score, face scale, and visual analog scale (VAS) assessing pain and disease activity [36].
  • Patients received anti-TNF therapy, and changes in scores on the Short Form 36 (SF-36), SF-6D, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire, and visual analog scales for patients' assessments of pain, fatigue, and global status from baseline to followup examinations at 3 and 6 months were compared [37].
  • In the course of treatment IL6 and MMP-3 levels decreased significantly, accompanied by a drop in serological markers (C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and clinical disease activity (visual analogue scale and Thompson joint score) [38].
  • In addition, the global assessment of disease activity by both physicians and patients, duration of morning stiffness, pain visual analog scale score, and Health Assessment Questionnaire were all improved by etanercept plus MTX therapy [39].
  • No association between the MRI or US estimates of inflammation and values on the visual analog scale for pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire, duration of morning stiffness, ESR, or CRP was found [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pain Measurement


  1. Treatment of chronic constipation with cisapride and placebo. Müller-Lissner, S.A. Gut (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Impaired perception of dyspnea in patients with severe asthma. Relation to sputum eosinophils. Veen, J.C., Smits, H.H., Ravensberg, A.J., Hiemstra, P.S., Sterk, P.J., Bel, E.H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Tinnitus suppression by intravenous lidocaine in relation to its plasma concentration. den Hartigh, J., Hilders, C.G., Schoemaker, R.C., Hulshof, J.H., Cohen, A.F., Vermeij, P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Polydefkis, M., Yiannoutsos, C.T., Cohen, B.A., Hollander, H., Schifitto, G., Clifford, D.B., Simpson, D.M., Katzenstein, D., Shriver, S., Hauer, P., Brown, A., Haidich, A.B., Moo, L., McArthur, J.C. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Mexiletine. A review of its therapeutic use in painful diabetic neuropathy. Jarvis, B., Coukell, A.J. Drugs (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy of paroxetine for relapse prevention in social anxiety disorder: a 24-week study. Stein, D.J., Versiani, M., Hair, T., Kumar, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of three different interventions for the correction of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy: a prospective study. Guaraldi, G., Orlando, G., De Fazio, D., De Lorenzi, I., Rottino, A., De Santis, G., Pedone, A., Spaggiari, A., Baccarani, A., Borghi, V., Esposito, R. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Quality of life outcomes of saquinavir, zalcitabine and combination saquinavir plus zalcitabine therapy for adults with advanced HIV infection with CD4 counts between 50 and 300 cells/mm3. Revicki, D.A., Swartz, C., Wu, A.W., Haubrich, R., Collier, A.C. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of a low dose of intraduodenal fat on satiety in humans: studies using the type A cholecystokinin receptor antagonist loxiglumide. Lieverse, R.J., Jansen, J.B., Masclee, A.A., Rovati, L.C., Lamers, C.B. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Rilmenidine and vigilance. Review of clinical studies. Mahieux, F. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. Arlt, W., Callies, F., van Vlijmen, J.C., Koehler, I., Reincke, M., Bidlingmaier, M., Huebler, D., Oettel, M., Ernst, M., Schulte, H.M., Allolio, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. Canadian Fluoxetine/Premenstrual Dysphoria Collaborative Study Group. Steiner, M., Steinberg, S., Stewart, D., Carter, D., Berger, C., Reid, R., Grover, D., Streiner, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. A controlled trial of corticosteroid injections into facet joints for chronic low back pain. Carette, S., Marcoux, S., Truchon, R., Grondin, C., Gagnon, J., Allard, Y., Latulippe, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparison of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (serotonin) antagonist ondansetron (GR 38032F) with high-dose metoclopramide in the control of cisplatin-induced emesis. Marty, M., Pouillart, P., Scholl, S., Droz, J.P., Azab, M., Brion, N., Pujade-Lauraine, E., Paule, B., Paes, D., Bons, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of cimetidine on the elimination and actions of ethanol. Feely, J., Wood, A.J. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Acute pharmacological effects of temazepam, diphenhydramine, and valerian in healthy elderly subjects. Glass, J.R., Sproule, B.A., Herrmann, N., Streiner, D., Busto, U.E. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine in healthy subjects. van Berckel, B.N., Lipsch, C., Timp, S., Gispen-de Wied, C., Wynne, H., van Ree, J.M., Kahn, R.S. Neuropsychopharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Stimulation-produced analgesia (SPA) from brain-stem and diencephalic sites in the rat: relationships between analgesia, aversion, seizures and catalepsy. Morgan, M.J., Franklin, K.B. Pain (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. A comparison of visual analog scale and categorical ratings of headache pain in a randomized controlled clinical trial with migraine patients. Lines, C.R., Vandormael, K., Malbecq, W. Pain (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P4503A activity on the acute disposition and effects of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate. Kharasch, E.D., Whittington, D., Hoffer, C. Anesthesiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of pramlintide on satiety and food intake in obese subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. Chapman, I., Parker, B., Doran, S., Feinle-Bisset, C., Wishart, J., Strobel, S., Wang, Y., Burns, C., Lush, C., Weyer, C., Horowitz, M. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparative abuse liability of intravenously administered remifentanil and fentanyl. Baylon, G.J., Kaplan, H.L., Somer, G., Busto, U.E., Sellers, E.M. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Spinal manipulative therapy versus a low force mimic maneuver for women with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, observer-blinded, clinical trial. Hondras, M.A., Long, C.R., Brennan, P.C. Pain (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Pain measurement with evoked potentials: combination of subjective ratings, randomized intensities, and long interstimulus intervals produces a P300-like confound. Becker, D.E., Haley, D.W., Ureña, V.M., Yingling, C.D. Pain (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Pain and uterine contractions during breast feeding in the immediate post-partum period increase with parity. Holdcroft, A., Snidvongs, S., Cason, A., Doré, C.J., Berkley, K.J. Pain (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on symptom severity and sputum mediator levels in chronic persistent cough. Chaudhuri, R., McMahon, A.D., Thomson, L.J., MacLeod, K.J., McSharry, C.P., Livingston, E., McKay, A., Thomson, N.C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Feverfew in rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind, placebo controlled study. Pattrick, M., Heptinstall, S., Doherty, M. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Asthma, bronchial hyperreactivity and mediator release in children with birch pollinosis. ECP and EPX levels are not related to bronchial hyperreactivity. Ferdousi, H.A., Dreborg, S. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Determination of the dose-response relationship for intrathecal sufentanil in laboring patients. Herman, N.L., Calicott, R., Van Decar, T.K., Conlin, G., Tilton, J. Anesth. Analg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Pressure pain thresholds in the craniofacial region of female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fredriksson, L., Alstergren, P., Kopp, S. Journal of orofacial pain. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Haloperidol antagonism of cue-elicited cocaine craving. Berger, S.P., Hall, S., Mickalian, J.D., Reid, M.S., Crawford, C.A., Delucchi, K., Carr, K., Hall, S. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Treatment of narcolepsy with L-tyrosine: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Elwes, R.D., Crewes, H., Chesterman, L.P., Summers, B., Jenner, P., Binnie, C.D., Parkes, J.D. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase on chronic tension-type headache: a randomised crossover trial. Ashina, M., Lassen, L.H., Bendtsen, L., Jensen, R., Olesen, J. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Hormonal and subjective responses to intravenous meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in bulimia nervosa. Levitan, R.D., Kaplan, A.S., Joffe, R.T., Levitt, A.J., Brown, G.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Specificity of ethanollike effects elicited by serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. Krystal, J.H., Webb, E., Cooney, N., Kranzler, H.R., Charney, D.S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Involvement of CD4+,CD57+ T cells in the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Maeda, T., Yamada, H., Nagamine, R., Shuto, T., Nakashima, Y., Hirata, G., Iwamoto, Y. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. The comparative effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor-blocking agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a six-month, longitudinal, observational, multicenter study. Heiberg, M.S., Nordvåg, B.Y., Mikkelsen, K., Rødevand, E., Kaufmann, C., Mowinckel, P., Kvien, T.K. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor treatment does not affect raised transforming growth factor beta levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Drynda, S., Kühne, C., Kekow, J. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. A comparative study of etanercept plus methotrexate and methotrexate alone in Taiwanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Lan, J.L., Chou, S.J., Chen, D.Y., Chen, Y.H., Hsieh, T.Y., Young, M. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of synovial inflammation of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study. Terslev, L., Torp-Pedersen, S., Savnik, A., von der Recke, P., Qvistgaard, E., Danneskiold-Samsøe, B., Bliddal, H. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Botulinum toxin type B: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and efficacy study in cervical dystonia. Lew, M.F., Adornato, B.T., Duane, D.D., Dykstra, D.D., Factor, S.A., Massey, J.M., Brin, M.F., Jankovic, J., Rodnitzky, R.L., Singer, C., Swenson, M.R., Tarsy, D., Murray, J.J., Koller, M., Wallace, J.D. Neurology (1997) [Pubmed]
  42. Circadian and circannual rhythms of allergic rhinitis: an epidemiologic study involving chronobiologic methods. Reinberg, A., Gervais, P., Levi, F., Smolensky, M., Del Cerro, L., Ugolini, C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  43. Expression of the anaphylatoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR is increased in fatal asthma. Fregonese, L., Swan, F.J., van Schadewijk, A., Dolhnikoff, M., Santos, M.A., Daha, M.R., Stolk, J., Tschernig, T., Sterk, P.J., Hiemstra, P.S., Rabe, K.F., Mauad, T. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  44. Patient-controlled versus staff-controlled analgesia with pethidine after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Zucker, T.P., Flesche, C.W., Germing, U., Schröter, S., Willers, R., Wolf, H.H., Heyll, A. Pain (1998) [Pubmed]
  45. Skin reactions and itch sensation induced by epicutaneous histamine application in atopic dermatitis and controls. Heyer, G., Hornstein, O.P., Handwerker, H.O. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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